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Chap17Composite Materials

Chap17Composite Materials

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Published by Kiran Babu Satuluri

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Published by: Kiran Babu Satuluri on Jul 27, 2012
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06/10/2014

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Chapter 17:Composite Materials
Issues to address...How do we estimate compositestiffness and strength?What are the classes and types? Why are composites used instead of metals, ceramics, or polymers? What are some typical applications?
17-1Anderson 205-
Terminology/Classification
Composite Definition:
multiphase material w/significant proportions of ea. phase
• Matrix:
-The continuous phase-Purpose:transfer
σ
to other phasesprotect phases from environ.-Classification: MMC, CMC, PMC
Dispersed Phase:
woven fiberscrosssectionviewmetalceramicpolymer
17-2Anderson 205-
 
0.5
µ
m0.5
µ
m-Purpose: enhance matrix propertiesMMC: increase
σ
y, TS, creepCMC: increase KcPMC: increase E,
σ
y, TS, creep-Classification: Particle-reinf, fiber-reinf, lamellar
Hull, “An Intro. to CompositeMaterials, Fig. 4.6
Particle-Reinforced
• Examples:
-spheroidite steel
Callister,Fig. 10.10
matrix: ferrite (
α
)(ductile)particles:cementite (Fe3C)(brittle)
-WC/Co cemented carbide
Callister,Fig. 17.4
matrix:cobalt (ductile)particles:WC(brittle, hard)
-Automobile tires
Callister,Fig. 17.5
matrix:rubber(compliant)particles:C(stiffer)
 
60
µ
mVm: 10-15vol%!600
µ
m0.75
µ
m
17-3Anderson 205-
Particle-Reinforced: Elastic Modulus
Ecdepends on volume fractions Vpand Vm:
Cu matrixw/tungstenparticles
Callister,Fig. 17.3
Application to other properties
Electrical conductivity,
σ
e: replace E by
σ
e.Thermal conductivity, k: replace E by k.
020406080100150200250300350vol% tungstenE(GPa)
lower limit:1E
c
=
V
m
E
m
+
V
p
E
p
upper limit:E
c
=
V
m
E
m
+
V
p
E
p
(Cu)(W)
“rule of mixtures”
17-4Anderson 205-
 
Fiber-Reinforced-I
Aligned Continuous:
Metal:
γ 
’(Ni3Al)-
α
(Mo)
Process: eutectic solidification
Glass w/SiC fibers
Process: glass slurryEglass = 76GPaESiC= 400GPa
Figs. 4.22, 11.20,Matthews & RawlingsFig. 3.5, Matthews & Rawlings:Composite Materials: Engineeringand Science
matrix:
α
(Mo)ductile fibers:
γ 
’(Ni3Al)brittle
 fracturesurface
17-5Anderson 205-2
µ
m
Fiber-Reinforced-II
Discontinuous, random 2D:
Process: fiber/pitch, followed by burnout at upto 2500°CUses: disk brakes, gasturbine exhaust flaps,nose cones
Fig. 4.24a,b: Matthews & Rawlings
Other variations:
Discontinuous, random 3DDiscontinuous 1D fibers liein planeview ontoplaneCarbon-Carbon
very stiff,strong C fibersless stiff less strongC matrix
17-6Anderson 205-
Critical fiber length
For effective stiffening and strengthening: fiber length
>
15
σ
 f 
d
τ
c
 fiber strength fiber diametershear strength of 
 
 fiber/matrix interface
Why? Longer fibers carry stress more efficiently• Example:
For fiberglass,
 
 fiber length > 15mm is needed.
Shorter, thicker fiber:
σ
 fiberlength
<
15
 f 
d
τ
c
d
c
τ
 fiberlength
>
15
σ
 f 
σ
(x)
Longer, thinner fiber:
σ
(x)
17-7Anderson 205-
 fiber efficiency:Better fiber efficiency:Poor
Fiber Composite Properties
Valid when
 fiberlength
>>
15
σ
 f 
d
τ
c
Elastic modulus in fiber direction:Ec= EmVm+KE f V f efficiency factoraligned 1D:K=1(anisotropic)random 2D:K=3/8(2D isotropy)random 3D:K=1/5(3D isotropy)TS in fiber direction:(aligned 1D)(TS)c= (TS)mVm+ (TS) f V f 
17-8Anderson 205-

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