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Chap20 Thermal Properties

Chap20 Thermal Properties

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Published by Kiran Babu Satuluri

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Published by: Kiran Babu Satuluri on Jul 27, 2012
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05/13/2014

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Chapter 20:Thermal Properties
Issues to address...How does a material respond to heat?heat capacityHow do we define and measure...coefficient of thermal expansionthermal conductivitythermal shock resistanceHow do ceramics, metals, and polymers rank?
20-1Anderson 205-
Heat Capacity
General: The ability of a material to absorb heat Quantitative: Energy required to increase TC
=
dQdT
heat capacity:Jmolenergy:temperature change: KJmol-K
Cp: Heat capacity at constant pressureCv: Heat capacity at constant volume
20-2Anderson 205-
Two ways to measure heat capacity:
Heat Capacity vs T
Heat capacityincreases with temperaturereaches a limiting value of 3RAtomic view:Energy is stored as atomic vibrations.As T goes up, so does avg. energy of atomic vibr.
Debye temperature(usually less than Troom)T (K)Heat capacity, Cv3R
θ
DCv= constant 
Callister,Fig. 20.2gas constant = 8.31 J/mol-K
20-3Anderson 205-
Comparison: Heat Capacity Values
• PolymersPolypropylenePolyethylenePolystyreneTeflon1925185011701050cp(J/kg-K) at room temperature• CeramicsMagnesia (MgO)Alumina (Al2O3)Glass940775840• MetalsAluminumSteelTungstenGold900486128138
data fromCallister,Table 20.1
20-4Anderson 205-
cp: (J/kg-K)Cp: (J/mol-K)Significantlylarger forpolymers: why?
 
Thermal Expansion
Materials change size when heatingL final- Linit Linit 
=α
(T final- Tinit )T
init 
T
 finalcoefficient of thermalexpansion (1/K)
Atomic View: Mean bond length increases with T
Bond energyBond length (r)T1T5
 
bond energy vs bond lengthcurve is “asymmetric”
20-5Anderson 205-
L
 final
L
init 
Comparison: Thermal Expansion Values
• PolymersPolypropylenePolyethylenePolystyreneTeflon145-180106-19890-150126-216
α
(10-6/K) at room temperature• CeramicsMagnesia (MgO)Alumina (Al2O3)Soda-lime glassSilica (cryst. SiO2)13.57.690.4• MetalsAluminumSteelTungstenGold23.6124.514.2Generallydecreaseswith increasingbond energyWhy?
data fromCallister,Table 20.1
20-6Anderson 205-
Thermal Conductivity
General: The ability of a material to transfer heat • Quantitative:q
=
dTdx
Temperaturegradient (K/m)heat flux:Jm2s
-k
thermal conductivityJm K sT1T2x1x2heat flux
Atomic View: Atomic vibrations in hotter regionscarry energy (vibrations) to cooler regions)
20-7Anderson 205-
Comparison: Thermal Conductivities
• PolymersPolypropylenePolyethylenePolystyreneTeflon0.120.46-0.500.130.25k (W/m-K)• CeramicsMagnesia (MgO)Alumina (Al2O3)Soda-lime glassSilica (cryst. SiO2)38391.71.4• MetalsAluminumSteelTungstenGold24752178315By vibration/rotation of chainmoleculesEnergy TransferBy vibrationof atomsBy vibrationof atoms andmotion of electrons
data fromCallister,Table 20.1
20-8Anderson 205-

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