short durations and low frequency components for long durations. Fortunately, the signals thatare encountered in practical applications are often of this type.The wavelet transform is a powerful tool for multiresolution analysis. Themultiresolution analysis requires a set of nested multiresolution sub-spaces as illustrated in thefollowing figure:
Figure. 3.2. Nested Multiresolution Spaces
The original space
can be decomposed into a lor resolution sub-space
, thedifference between
can be represented by the complementary sub-space
.Similarly, can continue to decompose
. The above graph shows 3-leveldecomposition. For an N-level decomposition, will obtain N+1 sub-spaces with one coarsestresolution sub-space
and N difference sub-space
, i is from 1 to N. Each digital signalin the space
can be decomposed into some components in each sub-space. In many cases,it's much easier to analyze these components rather than analyze the original signal itself.
3.3.2. Filter Bank Analysis
The corresponding representation in frequency space is intuitively shown in thefollowing graph: Can apply a pair of filters to divide the whole frequency band into twosubbands, and then apply the same procedure recursively to the low-frequency band on thecurrent stage. Thus, it is possible to use a set of FIR filters to achieve the abovemultiresolution decomposition. Here is one way to decompose a signal using filter banks.
Figure. 3.3. Multiresolution frequency bands
The effect of this shifting and scaling process is to produce a time-scale representation,as depicted in Figure 4. As can be seen from a comparison with the STFT, which employs awindowed FFT of fixed time and frequency resolution, the wavelet transform offers superior temporal resolution of the high frequency components and scale (frequency) resolution of thelow frequency components. This is often beneficial as it allows the low frequencycomponents, which usually give a signal its main characteristics or identity, to be