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Pergerakan Unsur Hara Dalam Tanah1

Pergerakan Unsur Hara Dalam Tanah1

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Published by Cindhy Ade Hapsari

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Published by: Cindhy Ade Hapsari on Jul 27, 2012
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11/22/2012

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PERGERAKAN UNSUR HARA DALAM TANAH
Disarikan oleh:Soemarno, tanahfpub-2009
Penyerapan hara oleh Tanaman
Penyerapan garam-garam mineral dari tanah oleh akar tanamanlazimnya disebut dengan istilah “penyerapan mineral”. Unsur mineral yangdiperlukan oleh tanaman ada di dalam larutan tanah. Mineral-mineral iniada dalam bentuk ion-ion dalam larutan tanah, dapat berupa kation atauanion. Ion-ion penting yang diserap oleh tanaman adalah H
+
, K
+
, Na
+
, Ca
++
,Mg
++
, CI-, H
2
PO
4-
, dll.
From the soil solution, the ions penetrate into the root cells: Entryof one type of ion into the cell must be accompanied by the entryof another type of ion of equal electrostatic charge. That is, equalAmount of anions and cations are absorbed. The monovalentcations such as K 
+
, Na
+
etc. are more rapidly absorbed than saltsof bivalent or polyvalent cations such as Mg
4
"
1
", Ca"
1
"
1
" etc.Sometimes, plants take up different amounts of anions andcations. In such cases of unbalanced ratio of cations and anions,the equilibrium is maintained by certain changes in the ioniccomposition of cell sap arid the salt solution. For example, whencation uptake is more, the cell produces organic acids (K-COOH). The anions (R-COO") of organic acids remain in the cell and thecations (H
+
) of organic acids move out into the external medium .to compensate for the cations taken in.
Sumber : www.theresilientearth.com/%3Fq%3...oaks-co21
 
Sumber : www.tutornext.com/help/in-passiv...the-cell
Kramer identified two methods of nutrients and water absorption,passive and active processes. The two terms suggest only the role of theroot in the process and should not be confused with similar terms used indescribing transport across cell membranes.(a) Penyerapan air secara pasif, dalam hal ini :
(i) Akar tanaman hanya perperan secara pasif;(ii) The actual force for absorption develops in the aerial parts (shoot).It is transpiration. It creates a tension or negative pressure (= pullingpressure) because of lowered *Kv in the leaves.(iii) The tension is transmitted to the xylem of roots, and then to the roothairs. Soil water passively moves through the root hairs along thispath, quite rapidly, as if it is pulled from above.(iv) Thus passive water absorption closely follows transpiration. About95% of the total water absorbed is through this method.
(b). Penyerapan air secara aktif. According to this theory it is the activity of roots that is responsiblefor water absorption. The process does not depend on any activity in theshoot. Therefore living root cells in an active state of metabolism arerequired for this. The process can occur in one of the following two ways:(i) Non-Osmotic Water Absorption was suggested by Bennet-Clarkin 1936. This theory assumes that water is absorbed actively butby nonosmotic mechanisms.
(a) It is suggested that the energy necessary for the process comesfrom respiration. The evidence in favour of this is that respiratorypoisons like cyanide inhibit this process. Low oxygen availability andlow temperatures also inhibit the process.(b) The evidence available today supports this view. It is seen that theroot hairs always remain turgid. This is because their solutepotential (Ts) is always higher than that of the soil solution. The highsolute potential is maintained by actively absorbing mineral ionsfrom the soil solution. The plasma membrane of the root hairs2
 
contains transport proteins. These can pump specific ions against aconcentration gradient, by using energy from ATP. The gradientcauses water to enter the root hairs by osmosis.(c) Therefore energy is expended for mineral ion transport and not for osmosis. Such a non-osmotic absorption can occur even in theabsence of transpiration. This happens at night when theatmospheric humidity is high (almost 100%) and transpiration doesnot occur. Even under such circumstances water absorptioncontinues.(ii) Osmotic Water Absorption was suggested by Priestley (1727) and Atkins(1916). According to this theory soil water is in the form of a soil solutionbecause a number of mineral salts are dissolved in it. Still it is hypotonicto cell sap of root hair. Therefore soil water moves along the gradientinto the root hairs by endosmosis.(a) The entire root cortex between the root hairs and xylem vessels actsas a semipermeable membrane. It is suggested that xylem vesselsmaintain a higher solute content by expenditure of energy.(b) Root pressure, (Section 8.5.ii), probably, contributes to active water absorption. Root pressure is a positive or pushing pressure. It canbe demonstrated in some plants in which sap is seen to exude fromthe cut end of a stem.
Aliran Massa
 Aliran massa (
mass flow 
) dan diffusi merupakan dua proses yangmenyebarkan bahan terlarut dalam profil tanah seperti pupuk dan pestisida.Kata diffusi berarti suatu penyebaran yang disebabkan oleh pergerakanpanas secara acak, sebagai gerak Brown dari partikel koloid. Dalam hal iniperpindahan terjadi oleh adanya perbedaan konsentrasi larutan pada duatempat yang berjarak tertentu dimana pergerakan terjadi dari konsentrasiyang tinggi ke konsentrasi yang rendah. Aliran massa atau aliran konveksiberbeda dengan difusi kerena pergerakannya terjadi oleh adanyaperpindahan air atau gas.Proses aliran massa dan difusi terjadi oleh sifat-sifat fisika yangberbeda dan arah geraknya berbeda. Aliran massa suatu zat dalam larutantanah akan bergerak dari daerah yang berair ke daerah yang kering.Sedangkan difusi justru berlawanan, yaitu dari daerah yang berkonsentrasitinggi ke konsentrasi rendah (daerah yang banyak air). Walaupunprosesnya berbeda tetapi di dalam tanah berlangsung secara simultan ataubersama-sama.Kedua proses pergerakan, baik difusi maupun aliran massa, sangatpenting dalam memindahkan unsur hara dari suatu tempat ke dekatpermukaan akar, agar dapat diserap oleh akar tanaman. Hal ini terjadi bagiunsur hara P, K, Ca, Mg, S dan sebagainya; tetapi bagi unsur hara N,terutama NO3- , justru pergerakan tersebut bukan saja berperanmemindahkan ke dekat akar tetapi dalam pengangkutan yang menjauhiakar atau biasa dikenal sebagai tercuci/terlindi.
3

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