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Croatian International Relations Review 1994

Croatian International Relations Review 1994

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Published by MijatTomic
Croatian International Relations Review 1994
Croatian International Relations Review 1994

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Published by: MijatTomic on Jul 28, 2012
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JULY-DECEMBER
2000
Chronology'
1994
January
through
April
January1:PresidentIzetbegoviesentanopenlettertoPresidentTudman:"TheArmyofBosnia-Herzegovina(BiH)istheonlylegalarmedforceinBosnia-Herzegovina...SpeakingabouttheBiHArmy,Iwanttobequiteclear:ThepresenceoftheBiHArmyinanypartofBosnia-Herzegovinaislegalandlegitimate,justasthepresenceofotherarmedforces,whichdonotrecognizethesupremecommandoftheBiHPresidency,isunlawfulandunacceptable.TheBiHArmycannotbeanaggressorinitsowncountry.Onlythearmiessentfromothercen-treswithouttheapprovaloftheBiRPresidencycanbeillegal....IagreethatthehumanitariansituationinBosnia-Herzegovjna.ieverydifficult,andthis,itset"'"·
,isine
onlypointonwhichwefullyagreeatthismoment...First,yourconvoyforNovaBilahasreacheditsdestination,butourcon-voyforMaglajhasnot.
It
isatthemomentwaitinginZenica.Thisshowsthatyouareill-informed.ThetruthisthattheconvoyforNovaBilawasdelayed
enroute
forconsiderabletime,butyoucertainlyknowtherea-sonforit-hiddenmilitarysupplies...Unfortunately,stoppingtheconvoyprovedfullyjustified.Onitsreturntheconvoyhadotherproblems,becauseitcameundercrossfireatGornjiVakuf,thesceneofdailyfightingformonths.Wefeelsorryforthevictims,butthiswarwasnotstartedbyus,any-whereinthecountry,includingGomjiVakuf.TheBiHArmyisdefendingthistownlegallyagainsttheparamili-taryHVOunitswhicharetryingtocaptureitandwhicharethusrespon-sibleforitsdestructionandthedeathsofhundredsofitsresidents.Theal-legedmessagebyDemoMerdan,DeputyCommanderoftheThirdCorps,iswhollyfabricated.Ourarmydoesnotkillwomenandchildren.Whatevidencedoyouhave,Mr.President,forsuchablatantslanderoftheBiHArmy?However,despitemanynegativedevelopments,Iwishinfullseriousnesstoconveytoyouourinterestinimprovingtherelationsbetweenourtwocountries,andinthedevelopmentofallformsofcoopera-tionbetweenthem.Butforthisagenu-inechangeinyourpolicytowardsBosnia-Herzegovinaisanecessaryprecondition."Jan.1:Adayofmourningwasde-claredintheLasvavalley(HVO-con-trolledpartsofcentralBosnia)follow-ingthekillingof74CroatsatKrizancevoSelo.Jan.2:SeveralthousandshellswerefiredbySerbsonMt.Zue(Sarajevo).Jan.2:ValeryGiscardd'Estaing,formerFrenchpresident,spoketotheFrancePressecorrespondentinZagreb:"ThesolutionoftheconflictintheformerYugoslaviacanbefoundonlywiththefullrespectoftheex-istingandinternationallyrecog-nizedbordersoftherepublics.Therecanbenosolutiontothesitua-tionintheformerYugoslaviaoutsidethefullrespectforquitesimplenormsofinternationallaw.Thefirstofthesenormsistherespectfortheborders.Thisissomethingthatisimplementedinthewholeworld.
It
is
imposeduponthosewhohaveexpandedbeyondtheirborders.
It
isimposeduponthosewhohaveminorities,evenlargemi-norities,outsidetheirborders."Jan.2:EjupGanie,thevice-presi-dentoftheBiHPresidency,saidtotheReuterscorrespondent:"Weare
try-
ingtomakeadealwiththeHVO,sothatwewouldletthemout(theLasvavalley),whilewewouldthensendourforcesin,butZagreb,ofcourse,op-posessuchaplan...ZagrebneedsscenesofsufferingofCroatianciti-zenstojustifyitsownactivityinMostar,butweshalltakecontroloftheLasvavalleyinonewayoran-other...IfwecapturetheLasvaval-ley,weshallclosethecircleandse-cureourexistencethereuptoacer-tainpoint.TheCroatsincentralBosniahavebeenbroughtinthepo-sitioninwhichtheynowfindthem-selvesbyZagreb.Theyhaveplayeda
147
dangerousgameagainsttheircountryandarenowpayingthepriceforit."Jan.3:TheCroatianPrimeMinister,NikicaValentic,wasvotedManoftheYearinCroatiainasurveycon-ductedbytheZadarnewspaper'Narodnilist'.Jan.3:"2,500CroatshavebeenkilledintheLasvavalley,andthisisjustthebeginning,"saidDarkoKraljevic,HVOcommanderinVitez,speakingforReuters."Thiswillbeastruggleforlifeuntildeath,"saidKraljevicreplyingtothestatementmadebythevice-presidentoftheBiHPresidencyEjupGanic.Jan.3:ArtilleryattacksagainstSarajevo.Twentypeoplewerekilledand34werewounded.Ashellfellonanapartmentinthecitycentre,kill-ingthesix-memberfamilyofDragnie-Tatrevlc,includingtwochildren.Jan.3:AgroupofCroatianMus-limintellectualsinZagrebhandedalettertoPresidentTudmandemand-ingthecessationofconflictsbetweentheMuslimsandtheCroatsintheLasvavalley.TheywereplanningtohandthesamelettertoPresidentIzetbegovle.Theysaid,"TheBosnianMuslimsbelongamongtheEuropeannationsBosniacannotexistwithoutCroatia"ThePresidentsupportedtheirinitiative,stating:"Ihaverecom-mendedtotheCroatianpeopleinBosnia-HerzegovinatovoteinthereferendumforindependentBosnia-Herzegovina,whichtheydid.TheCroatshaveacceptedtheEuropeanCommunity'Sproposalforthecan-tonalsysteminBosnia-Herzegovina,whichAlijaIzetbegovicrejects.WehavealsoacceptedtheVance-OwenplanofterritorialdivisionofBosniaintoprovinces,andIzetbegovicagainrefusedit.WehaveacceptedtheEu-ropeanCommunity'Sproposalfortheunionofthreestates...EjupGanic'srecentstatementsandtheMuslimoffensiveintheLasvavalley,despitethesignedChristmastruce,indicatethattheMuslimleadershiphas,unfortunately,chosenthewaroption."Jan.3:TheUNSecretary-General'sspecialrepresentativeintheformerYugoslavia,YasushiAkashi,spoketojournalistsinZagreb:"ThorvaldStoltenbergwillfocusonnegotia-tionsandIontheimplementationof
 
148
theUNPROFORmandateandonpre-paringthegroundfortheimplemen-tationofthefuturepeaceagreement."Jan.3;MUovanIlicMinimakssaid:"Thistime,too,
I
sent(some)NewYeargreetingstosomepeople:toZoranLilie(presidentoftheFederalRepublicofYugoslavia)whodancesexcellentlytoourpeople'smusic
I
wishtoplayanddancein'Crvena
Zvezda';
toSiobodanMilosevie
I
wishthathispeopleshouldhavetheir
fill,
butnottobefedup;toRadoje
Kontlc
(YugoslavPrimeMinister)
I
wishthathisgovernmentshouldfol-lowtheexampleofthenationalcur-rencyanddropseveralzeros;toVojislavSeselj
I
wishtohangfromthelampposts-butonlyduringtheelectioncampaign;toZoranDinilieIwishthatnobodyshouldmakeafoolofhim,andiftheydo,thatthisshouldbedonein
a
fairmanner;toSiobodankaGruden(mayorofBel-grade)tocleanthecityassoonaspossibleoftheelectionarrestwar-rants;toYugoslavia
I
wishthatitscapitalshouldmovefromGenevatoBelgrade."Jan.
4:
FraPetarAndelkovic,FranciscanProvinceheadofBosnaSrebrena,speakingfortheZagrebdaily'Vecernjilist':"FromtheverybeginningoftheCroatian-Muslimconflict,
I
dvocated,as
I
donow,anintegralBosnia-Herzegovina-ofcourse,withaninternalorganizationsuchasthethreenationsagreeon.Inthissenseitcan
be
surmisedthat
I
was,atleastbeforethesigningoftheagree-mentontheinternalorganizationofBosnia-Herzegovina,againsttheproclamationof'Herceg-Bosna.First,theSerbianRepublicinBosnia-Herzegovinawasproclaimed,andthentheCroatianRepublic.Thesewerethemovesthat
I
sincerelydoubtedcouldbebeneficialfortheCroats,especiallyasIhadtheimpres-sionthattoomanyCroatsremainedoutsidetheCroatianRepublicofHerceg-Bosna...WehadcontactswithmanypoliticiansinCroatia,but
I
wouldnotrevealnowwhoseblessingwereceivedforthisinZagrebnorhowithappenedthatMr.KomsicjoinedthePresidency.Heisdoinghisbest
1
CROATIANINTERNATIONALRELATIONSREVIEW
tryingtodefendtheinterestsoftheCroatsinplaceswheretheMuslimsarethemajority.AsregardsMr.Kljujic,therewasafairamountofconfusion,andsomeCroatsdidnotfavourhispresenceinthePresidency,buthewasreturnedtothatpositionwiththeexplanationthathisresigna-tionhadbeenimproperlyformulatedandwasthusineffective.
I
onotquiteunderstandhisposition."Jan.
4:
TheBosnian-HerzegovinianPrimeMinister,HarisSilajdzic,andtheCroatianForeignMinister,MateGranic,metinViennatodiscusstheendofhostilities.GranicexpressedthewishforanimmediatecessationoftheconflictsinCentralBosnia,andSilajdi:icforthecessationoftheconflictsbetweenMuslimsandCroats.MateGranicwasaccompa-niedbyMileAkmadzic,ForeignMinisteroftheCroatianRepublicofHerceg-Bosna,Jan.
4:
Aboutahundreddemonstra-torsprotestedinfrontoftheBiHem-bassyinZagrebagainsttheattackonCroatsinBosnia-HerzegovinabytheBiHArmy.
IvicaBosnjak
fromKiseljak(nearSarajevo)readthemanifestoofCroatsfromBosnia-Herzegovina,demanding,amongotherthings,theclosureoftheBiHEmbassyinZagrebandthebanningoftheDemocraticActionParty(SDA)inCroatia.Jan.
4:
TheGermanForeignMinis-ter,KlausKinkelaskedPresident
Izetbegovle
tostopattacksonCroatianenclavesinBosnia-Herzegovina.Jan.
4:
YasushiAkashi(former
UN
representativeinCambodia),theUNSecretary-General'sspecialrepre-sentativeinZagreb,saidthatUNPROFORhadnotundertakentheobligationtofighteitherofthepar-ties.Jan.4:GeneralRatkoMladic,com-manderoftheRepublicofSrpskaArmy,stated:"ThereisnochancethattheSerbswouldsurrenderordividetheregionofKalinovik,BosanskaPosavina,Kupresplato,orMt.OzrenAlloftheseareSerbianter-ritoriesTheSerbswillnotrelinquishwhattheyhavecapturedwiththeforceofarms..."Jan.
4:
SerbianartilleryshellskilledtenpeopleinSarajevoandwoundedaboutfifty.Jan.4:DragoStipacsentanopenlettertoAli
j
aIzetbegovie;"ThemostrecenthorribleslaughterinKriZancevoSelo-thoughitcanbetreatedasretaliationforStupniDoandsimilarincidents-isanindica-tionofthefateofotherenclavesnotunderyourcontrolincentralBosnia.Allthisshowsthatyouhavenotman-agedtopreservethedignityandbreakoutoftheviciouscircleofhelL.Re-examineyourconscienceandyourpoliciesinthelightofthetearsofthevenerableKoran.MehmetefFalihknewhowtodothisasfarbackas1463."Jan.4:TheNationalAssemblyoftheRepublicofSrpskadecidedtochangethenameofFoca(easternBosnia),whichthistownhadforfivehundredyears,intoSrbinje.Jan.
5:
TheViennatalksbetweenMateGranicandHarisSilajdiicendedwith
an
agreementtostopthehostilitiesinBosnia-Herzegovina.
A
meetingbetweenPresidentsIzebegnvieandTudmanwastobeheldinBonnwithinthreedays.TheagreementonthefreeportzoneinPlocewasconfirmed.Thecommis-sionfortheexchangeoftheprisonersofwarwouldmeetsoon,andinMostartheconditionsweretobees-tablishedtotransferthefieldhospitalfromPlocetotheeastern(Muslim)partofMostaracrosstheHVO-con-trolledterritory.Jan.
5:
SirMichaelRose,Britishgeneral,tookoverthecommandofthepeaceforcesinBosnia-Herzegovina,fromtheBelgiangeneralFrancoisBriquemont.Jan.
5:
ThePrimeMinisteroftheCroatianRepublicofHerceg-Bosna,JadrankoPrliC,sentalettertotheCroatiangovernmentaskingforare-examinationofdiplomaticrelationswithBosnia-Herzegovina,orwith
Izetbegevlc's
MuslimauthoritiesinSarajevo,which-asthelettersays-falselyrepresentedthemselvesasle-gitimateandtheonlylegalrepresenta-tivesoftheinternationallyrecognizedstateofBosnia-Herzegovina.Jan.
6:
TheUNPROFORcommanderintheformerYugoslavia,generalJeanCot,invitedtheinternationalcommunitytosetuprapid-reactionforcesinthispartoftheworld.Jan.6:TheUSambassadortothe
UN,Madeleine
Albright,
visited
 
JULY-
Vukovarandthemassgraveof'peo-pleformtheVukovarhospitalkilledatOvcarain1991.InZagreb,Mrs.AlbrighthadtalkswithPresidentTudman.Jan.6:ArtilleryattacksonSarajevo.Jan.6:FightinginSarajevoneartheJewishcemetery.Threepeoplewerekilledand29werewounded.Jan.6:PresidentIzetbegovieandPrimeMinisterSi1ajdiicissuedanappealtostopthedestructionofSarajevo"committedbytheSerbaggressorbeforetheeyesofthewholeworldfortendaysalready".Jan.6:TheSpeakeroftheRepublicofSrpskaAssembly,MomciloKrajlsnlk,speakingtojournalists:"Wearepreparedtosurrender33.3percentoftheterritoryofSarajevo,withninemunicipalities,toremainunderUNcontroluntilapermanentsolutionisfound."Jan.6:RadioYugoslavia:"TheSerbsdemandanaccesstotheseaatNeum(Bosnia-Herzegovina)oratMolunat(thesouthernmosttipofCroatia)."Jan.7:TheHVOandtheBiHArmyclashedatVitez(Bosnia-Herzegovina).Jan.7:ArtilleryattacksonSarajevo.Jan.7:MadeleineAlbright,speak-ingtojournalists:"IhavetalkedtoPresidentTudmanabouttheneedforfullcooperationwiththeHagueTri-bunal.ItsjurisdictionextendstotheblockingofhumanitarianaidtoBosnia-Herzegovina...WehavetalkedalsoabouttheimportanceofCroatianinfluenceontheHVOnottodisturbhumanitarianconvoys."Jan.7:B.B.Ghalirefusedtoauthor-izegeneralCottoorderairattacks.Jan.7:TheUNSecurityCouncilissuedapresidentialstatementex-pressingdeepconcernbecauseofthecontinuationofwidespreadhostilitiesinBosnia-Herzegovina.TheSecurityCouncilinvitedallpartiestostopthehostilitiesthroughoutBosnia-Herzegovinaandtoreachanagree-mentassoonaspossiblewithintheframeworkoftheinternationalcon-ferenceontheformerYugoslavia.Jan.8:ArtilleryandmortarattackonSarajevo.Twelvepeoplewerekilledand36werewounded.Jan.8:RebelSerbattacksinthehin-terlandofZadar.Jan.8:RebelSerbattacksinthehin-terlandof~ibenik.Jan.8:TheChairmanoftheCroatianPeasantParty,DragoStipac,speak-ingfortheZagrebdaily'Vecernjilist':"TheCroatsinBosniaaremilitarilyandpoliticallydefeated,butnobodydarestoacceptthisandsigntheca-pitulation.Thereisnothingtodiscuss,really.IhavealwaysviewedIzetbegoviCasseparatedfromtheseextremedevelopments,buttheeventsontheWhiteRoad,atKribRcevoSeloandinotherplacesshowthatallmeansarenowused.
It
iscleartomethattheMuslimswilltaketheremain-ingenclaves.Actually,weonlyhaveenclavesatBusovaca,KiseljakandVitez,sometwentytothirtysquarekilometreseach,asmallterritoryattepee,andthatisalLTheCroatianpolicyshouldtakeanewdirectionnowthattheideaofHerceg-Bosnahasprovedcounter-productivefortheCroatiancause.
It
shouldnowbein-stalledagain,butnotatGrudeandinWesternHerzegovina,butinSarajevo.
It
isnolongerpossibletodesignBosnianpoliciesinZagreb,leavingoutBosnianCroatsalto-gether."Jan.9:TheHVOandtheBiHArmyclashedatVitezand:tepce(Bosnia-Herzegovina).Jan.9:TalksbetweenPresidentsTudmanandIzetbegovleandthedelegationsofCroatiaandBosnia-HerzegovinabeganatPetersburgnearBonn.PresidentTudmanhandedtheproposalforanegotiatedagree-mentbetweenCroatiaandBosnia-HerzegovinatoPresidentIzetbegovic,theGermanForeignMinister,KlausKinkel,andLordOwenandThorvaldStoltenberg,Co-chairmenofthePeaceConferenceontheFormerYugoslavia.Thispro-posalincludedthesolutionoftheproblemoftheCroatsandMuslimsandtherelationsbetweenCroatiaandBosnia-Herzegovina.(Thenegotia-tionscontinuedthefollowingday.
It
wasagreedthatPresidentIzetbegovicshouldorderthecessationofoffen-siveoperationsincentralBosnia,thatthefinalreplytotheCroatianpropos-alswouldbegivenby15January,andthatnegotiationsshouldstartonthecessationofhostilitiesbetweenCroatiansandMuslims.Twodayslater,attheendofthetalks,PresidentTudmancalledthem"usefulnever-
__149
theless".PresidentIzetbegnviestatedforBosnian-HerzegovinianTelevi-sionthat"nosignificantagreementhasbeenreached"andthattheCroatiansiderejectedtheproposalfortheHVOtowithdrawfromVitezandBusovacato
be
replacedbyethnicallymixedpoliceunits.CroatiadidnotaccepttheproposalsconcerningNeum.AsfortheCroatianproposalforanoverallsolutionoftherelationsbetweenCroatiaandBosnia-Herzegovina,Izetbegovicconsideredit"veryinteresting",butcomingat"inauspicioustime".)Jan.9:TheMuslimDemocraticPartywasestablishedinMostar.TheChair-manwasArminPohara.Jan.9:TheBiHArmyandtheAnnyoftheRepublicofSrpskaclashedatOlovo(Bosnia-Herzegovina).Jan.9:YasushiAkashi:"Theestab-lishmentofpeaceandfreemovementofhumanitarianconvoysaremymaintasks."Jan.
to:
KrunislavOlujic,alawyerfromOsijek,wasappointedStateProsecutorinCroatia.Hestated:"Havingtochosebetweenpoliticsandtheprofession,Ichosetheprofes-sion."Jan.
to:
TheHVOandtheBiHArmyclashedatVitez(Buhine
Kuce)
andatBusovac3.Jan.10:ColonelTihomirBlaskie,HVOcommanderofthedistrictofVitez,speakingfortheZagrebdaily'Vecernjilist':"Incidents(incentralBosnia)beganattheverybeginning,whentheHVOstartedtoannandequipitself,inearlyJanuary1992,forthefightagainsttheSerbs,whowereouronlyenemyatthattime.Thesewerejustsporadicincidentsthatwetriedtoovercomewithoutreadinesstocooperate,andImustsaythatwelargelysucceededinthis.Clashesbe-ganatBusovacawhentheweaponsweretobedistributed.TheMuslimswantedalloftheweaponsforthem-selves.Thefirstopen-armedconflictwiththeMuslimstookplaceon24August1992,whentheirforceslaunchedanopenattackonCroatianunitsnearKiseljak,andespeciallyonthevillageofPotkraj...Theyarenow
preparingnewoffensivesandweex-

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