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Introduction to HRXRD

Introduction to HRXRD

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Published by Trà Nguyễn
introduction to HRXRD
introduction to HRXRD

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Published by: Trà Nguyễn on Jul 28, 2012
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06/22/2013

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Introduction toHigh Resolution X-Ray Diffraction of Epitaxial Thin Films
Scott A Speakman, Ph.D.MIT Center for Materials Science and Engineering
617-253-6887speakman@mit.edu
http://prism.mit.edu/xray
 
Epitaxial films can be studied by rocking curves, omega-2theta coupled scans, reciprocal space maps, andreflectivity scans
Rocking curves can give information on
 – 
Defects such as dislocation density, mosaic spread, curvature, and inhomogeneity
 – 
Layer thickness, superlattice period, strain and composition profile
 – 
Lattice mismatch, ternary composition, misorientation, and relaxation
These parameters are correlated and be determined if only one of theseparameters is unknown
Coupled scans can give information on
 – 
Lattice mismatch, ternary composition, relaxation, thickness and superlattice period
Reciprocal space maps can give information on
 – 
Lattice mismatch, ternary composition, misorientation, and relaxation
 – 
Surface damage, dislocation density, mosaic spread, curvature
 – 
Thickness and superlattice period
X-Ray Reflectivity can give information on
 – 
Thickness, interface roughness, and composition or density
 – 
XRR works with non-epitaxial and even non-crystalline thin films
http://prism.mit.edu/xrayPage 2
 
The atoms in a crystal are a periodic array of coherent scatterers and thus can diffract light.
Diffraction occurs when each object in a periodic array scatters radiationcoherently, producing concerted constructive interference at specific angles.
The
electrons
in an atom coherently scatter light.
 – 
The electrons interact with the oscillating electric field of the light wave.
Atoms in a crystal form a periodic array of coherent scatterers.
 – 
The wavelength of X rays are similar to the distance between atoms.
 – 
Diffraction from different planes of atoms produces a diffraction pattern, whichcontains information about the atomic arrangement within the crystal
 
X Rays are also reflected, scattered incoherently, absorbed, refracted, andtransmitted when they interact with matter.

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