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Open Innovation and open APIs in Digital Journalism

Open Innovation and open APIs in Digital Journalism

Ratings: (0)|Views: 5,185 |Likes:
Published by Tanja Aitamurto
This article examines the relative value of open innovation principles for digital media,
exemplified by the emergence of Open Application Programming Interfaces (Open
APIs) at four news organizations: The New York Times, The Guardian, USA Today 
and NPR. The use of Open APIs represents a shift toward an open innovation paradigm that may help address twin challenges facing the news industry: the need for improved R&D and
the need for new revenue streams. This paper extends the interdisciplinary study of 
open innovation to digital communication. Findings indicate that the use of Open APIs
has accelerated R&D through knowledge-sharing with web developers; generated new
means of commercializing content by extending a firm’s product portfolio; and forged
innovation networks that function as external R&D departments. The article discusses
the constant negotiation between openness and control, and open and closed paradigms
in journalism.
This article examines the relative value of open innovation principles for digital media,
exemplified by the emergence of Open Application Programming Interfaces (Open
APIs) at four news organizations: The New York Times, The Guardian, USA Today 
and NPR. The use of Open APIs represents a shift toward an open innovation paradigm that may help address twin challenges facing the news industry: the need for improved R&D and
the need for new revenue streams. This paper extends the interdisciplinary study of 
open innovation to digital communication. Findings indicate that the use of Open APIs
has accelerated R&D through knowledge-sharing with web developers; generated new
means of commercializing content by extending a firm’s product portfolio; and forged
innovation networks that function as external R&D departments. The article discusses
the constant negotiation between openness and control, and open and closed paradigms
in journalism.

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Published by: Tanja Aitamurto on Jul 29, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/07/2014

 
46>4
=6524
66>6.>>??/>85>8882>48=6524NatnlurtgnihCmwasImw Lmhan&[gkamty
Gpmi aiigvntagi ai haoatnc jgurincasl: Mxnlaiaio tbm alpnkt ge Gpmi NVAs nt egur imws groniazntagis
Xnijn Natnlurtg
[tniegrh ]iavmrsaty, ][N
[mtb K Cmwas
]iavmrsaty ge Laiimsgtn, ][N
Ndstrnkt
Xbas nrtakcm mxnlaims tbm rmcntavm vncum ge gpmi aiigvntagi praikapcms egr haoatnc lmhan, mxmlpcaeamh dy tbm mlmromikm ge Gpmi Nppcakntagi Vrgornllaio Aitmrenkms (Gpmi NVAs) nt egur imws groniazntagis:
Xbm Imw Qgr` Xalms, Xbm Ounrhani, ][N Xghny
nih IVT. Xbm usm ge Gpmi NVAs rmprmsmits n sbaet tgwnrh ni gpmi aiigvntagi pnrnhaol tbnt lny bmcp nhhrmss twai kbnccmioms enkaio tbm imws aihustry: tbm immh egr alprgvmh T&H nih tbm immh egr imw rmvmium strmnls. Xbas pnpmr mxtmihs tbm aitmrhaskapcainry stuhy ge gpmi aiigvntagi tg haoatnc kglluiakntagi. Eaihaios aihakntm tbnt tbm usm ge Gpmi NVAs bns nkkmcmrntmh T&H tbrguob `igwcmhom-sbnraio watb wmd hmvmcgpmrs0 omimrntmh imw lmnis ge kgllmrkancazaio kgitmit dy mxtmihaio n earl‑s prghukt pgrtegcag0 nih egromh aiigvntagi imtwgr`s tbnt euiktagi ns mxtmrinc T&H hmpnrtlmits. Xbm nrtakcm haskussms tbm kgistnit imogtantagi dmtwmmi gpmiimss nih kgitrgc, nih gpmi nih kcgsmh pnrnhaols ai jgurincasl.
@mywgrhs
Dusaimss lghmcs, haoatnc lmhan aihustrams, bnk`ntbgis, aiigvntagi imtwgr`s, Gpmi NVAs, gpmi aiigvntagi, gicaim jgurincasl, prghukt hmvmcgplmit, T&H, smrvakms aiigvntagi
Kgrrmspgihaio nutbgr:
Xnijn Natnlurtg, Kmitmr gi Hmlgkrnky, Hmvmcgplmit, nih tbm Tucm ge Cnw, [tniegrh ]iavmrsaty, MikainBncc, 5>5 [mrrn [t, 18;6= [tniegrh, KN, ][N. Mlnac: tnijnnFstniegrh.mhu
!"#$% $% ' ()*+()$,- .*)%$/, /6 ', ')>4;*8 =#$4# ='% (5?;$%#*2 '- -#* 1*= :*2$' 0 3/4$*-< /, 95;< 7F)28 7N!78 ',2 =##$4# $% '44*%%$?;* '-D #K(DHH,M%E%'O*(5?E4/MH4/,-*,-H*');<H7N!7HNBH!BH!AJ!AAA@!7ACNJ@7E'?%-)'4-
 
4
imw lmhan & sgkamty 6(6)
Aitrghuktagi
Xbm imws aihustry as enkaio ermsb kbnccmioms nssgkantmh, ai pnrt, watb tbm haoatncazntagi ge imws kgitmit0 tbas as pnrtakucnrcy trum ai tbm kgitmxt ge rmsmnrkb nih hmvmcgplmit (T&H) nih dusaimss lghmcs. Earst, tbm T&H immhs ge imws groniazntagis bnvm dmkglm aikrmns- aiocy kglpcmx, ns haoatnc kgitmit lust dm hmcavmrmh gi n orgwaio iuldmr ge pcntegrls, sukb ns lgdacm pbgims nih tndcmt hmvakms, aistmnh ge gim pralnry lmhaul. Kglpguihaio tbas prgdcml as tbm iuldmr ge gpmrntaio systmls tg lninom gi niy saiocm pcntegrl
!
 ns ai tbm knsm ge aG[, Nihrgah nih _aihgws rmquaraio suppgrt gi lgdacm ncgim. [mkgih, lmhan kgivmromikm bns krmntmh lgrm kglpmtatagi. Imws kgisulptagi bndats nrm kbnioaio rnp- ahcy ns nuhamikms dmkglm lgrm ernolmitmh nih pmgpcm orgw nkkustglmh tg ontbmraio imws ergl smvmrnc sgurkms rntbmr tbni n saiocm hmstaintagi satm. Ai meemkt, tbm nttmitagi tbnt niy gim imws groniazntagi omts as halaiasbaio (Gclstmnh mt nc., 46>>). Nt tbm snlm talm,  jgurincasl‑s trnhataginc nhvmrtasaio- nih sudskraptagi-dnsmh rmvmium lghmcs nrm struo- ocaio, cmnvaio imws groniazntagis watb wniaio rmsgurkms (_nchlni, 46>>).Xbmsm enktgrs krmntm lniy kgiuihruls egr tbm imws aihustry, nlgio wbakb as: bgw kni imws groniazntagis `mmp up watb lghmri hmlnihs egr T&H, igt dy aikrmnsaio kgsts  dut dy eaihaio imw rmvmium tg geesmt hmkcaims ai cmonky gpmrntagis
!
 nih, uctalntmcy, haskgvmr imw lnr`mts egr kgitmit7
>
Xbas `aih ge T&H kbnccmiom as igt uiaqum tg tbm imws aihustry, ns earls ai n iuldmr ge eamchs struoocm watb n salacnr tmisagi dmtwmmi twg `my enktgrs kbnioaio tbm mkgiglaks ge aiigvntagi: tbm aikrmnsaio kgsts ge T&H egr kgl-  pniams nih tbm sbgrtmiaio prghukt caemkykcm (Kbmsdrguob, 4665).Ai rmspgism, kglpniams aikrmnsaiocy nrm turiaio tg
gpmi aiigvntagi
strntmoams tg mibnikm tbmar dusaimss hmvmcgplmit nih T&H. Ai bas smlainc wgr` ndgut gpmi aiigvn- tagi, Bmiry Kbmsdrguob (466;) rmemrs tg twg kglpcmlmitnry `aihs ge gpmiimss ai tbm aiigvntagi prgkmss. Gim as ‒gutsahm-ai‑, ai wbakb n kglpniy mibnikms tbm usm ge mxtmrinc ahmns nih tmkbigcgoams ai ats gwi dusaimss. Xbas lmnis lgvaio pnst tbm ‒igt aivmitmh bmrm‑ syihrglm nssgkantmh watb tbm kcgsmh T&H lghmc. Gpmi aiigvntagi ncsg mitnacs‒aisahm-gut‑ gpmiimss, ai wbakb tbm kglpniy mikgurnoms gtbmrs tg kgllmrkancazm ats tmkbigcgoams.Gpmi Nppcakntagi Vrgornllaio Aitmrenkms (NVAs), ns wm nroum ai tbas pnpmr, nrm ni mnrcy lniaemstntagi ge gpmi aiigvntagi ai tbm imws aihustry. Gpmi NVAs smrvm ns ni aitmr- enkm dmtwmmi sgetwnrm prgornls, strukturaio tbm rucms dy wbakb gim prgornl kni nkkmss tbm aiegrlntagi ge nigtbmr (ke. Hm [guzn nih Tmhlacms, 4661). Gpmi NVAs nrm sgetwnrm tggcs tbnt mindcm smnlcmss haoatnc kgitmit-sbnraio dmtwmmi kgitmit prgvahmrs nih tbarh-  pnrty hmvmcgpmrs (Dghcm, 46>>). _atb Gpmi NVAs, kglpniams sukb ns Enkmdgg` nih Oggocm aivatm mxtmrinc hmvmcgpmrs tg duach smrvakms sukb ns wmd nppcakntagis nrguih tbmar kgitmit
!
 egr aistnikm, dy rmpudcasbaio tbm graoainc kgitmit ai n imw mivargilmit.Egr lukb ge tbm twmitamtb kmitury, tbm imws aihustry
!
 ai pnrtakucnr, tbm imwspnpmr aihustry ai hmvmcgpmh kguitrams sukb ns tbm ]iatmh [tntms
!
 wns n baobcy stndcm nih suk- kmsseuc mitmrprasm (Vaknrh, 4662: ?6=), ai wbakb lgigpgcastak kgitrgc ai cgknc lnr`mts onvm imws groniazntagis cattcm immh tg aivmst ai T&H gr tg buit egr krmntavm dusaimss sgcutagis ergl dmygih tbmar aihustry hglnai (ke. Igrhqvast mt nc., 46>6). Ai rmkmit talms, imws groniazntagis
!
 igtndcy
Xbm Ounrhani, Xbm Imw Qgr` Xalms, ][N Xghny
, nih IVT 
4
!
 bnvm hmpcgymh pudcakcy nvnacndcm NVAs. Xbm mlmromikm ge Gpmi NVAs egr imws pgaits
7
 
 Natnlurtg nih Cmwas
;
tg tbm pgtmitanc rgcm egr tbm gpmi aiigvntagi pnrnhaol ai haoatnc lmhan, gr nt cmnst rmvmncs n egrl ge mxpmralmitntagi (sukkmsseuc gr igt) gkkurraio nt tbm aitmrsmktagi ge lmhan dusa- imss, haoatnc tmkbigcgoy nih aiigvntagi prgkmssms. Xbm nknhmlak catmrnturm, wbacm aivms- taontaio aiigvntagi watbai imws groniazntagis (m.o. Hglaiog nih Vntmrsgi, 46>>0 Onhm nih Vmrry, 466;), bns ymt tg nhhrmss tbm prnktaknc nih tbmgrmtaknc alpcakntagis ge tbm NVA  pbmiglmigi
!
 dgtb ats pgtmitanc tg krmntm vncum egr jgurincasl nih ats kgitradutagi tg tbm uihmrstnihaio ge gpmi aiigvntagi ai tbm smrvakms aihustry. Imvmrtbmcmss, alprgvmh tmkb- igcgoams gr mibnikmh T&H dy tbmlsmcvms kniigt sgcvm tbm imws aihustry‑s wgms. Xbm haeeusagi ge aiigvntagis as n kglpcmx prgkmss (Tgomrs, >116), nih tbm gutkglm ge tmkb- igcgoy nhgptagi as sbnpmh dy tbm aitmrpcny ge groniazntaginc strukturms, prgemssaginc kuc- turm nih rmcntmh kgitmxtunc enktgrs (Dgkz`gws`a, 46680 Vnucussmi mt nc., 46>>).Xbas stuhy mxtmihs tbm rmsmnrkb ndgut gpmi aiigvntagi tg smrvakms aiigvntagi ai tbm kgitmxt ge haoatnc smrvakms prgvahmh dy jgurincasl groniazntagis. _m mxnlaim tbm kgi- kmpt ge gpmi aiigvntagi ai haoatnc lmhan, wbmrm tbm kgrm prghukt as aiegrlntagi kgitmit
!
 sukb ns imws, nrtakcms, hntndnsms nih pakturms
!
 rntbmr tbni bnrhwnrm/sgetwnrm tmkbigc- goy, wbakb bns dmmi tbm egkus ge mnrcy rmsmnrkb gi nih alpcmlmitntagi ge gpmi aiigvn- tagi (Kbmsdrguob nih Krgwtbmr, 46650 Hnbcnihmr nih Onii, 46>6).
Xbmgrmtaknc dnk`orguih nih `my kgikmpts
Gpmi NVAs, gpmi aiigvntagi, nih imws groniazntagis
Nppcakntagi Vrgornllaio Aitmrenkms (NVAs) nrm sgetwnrm tggcs kgllgicy usmh ai groni- azntagis tg havahm kgccndgrntavm nih hastradutmh sgetwnrm hmvmcgplmit wgr`, strmnlcaiaio tbm tmkbigcgoaknc prgkmssms nih bulni rmsgurkms aivgcvmh (Niniiy, 46>>0 Hm [guzn nih Tmhlacms, 4661). NVAs nrm n smt ge rucms dy wbakb gim sgetwnrm prgornl kni kglluia- kntm watb nigtbmr sgetwnrm prgornl. Kglpniams kni hmvmcgp aitmrinc NVAs egr sbnraio kgitmit watbai tbmar groniazntagis, ns wmcc ns pudcak NVAs
!
 a.m. Gpmi NVAs
!
 egr sbnraio kgitmit watb mxtmrinc pudcaks. Gpmi NVAs nrm n tggc egr aitmrimt kglpniams tg mxkbniom tbmar kgitmit meeakamitcy watb mxtmrinc kgccndgrntgrs (Dghcm, 46>>)._atb tbmsm pudcakcy nvnacndcm NVAs, niygim watb tbm tmkbiaknc knpnkaty kni usm tbm aitmrenkm tg duach n tbarh-pnrty smrvakm, sukb ns n lgdacm nppcakntagi, usaio tbm NVA prg- vahmr‑s kgitmit. Xg katm n emw mxnlpcms: Enkmdgg` aivatms tbarh-pnrty hmvmcgpmrs tg krmntm nppcakntagis nrguih Enkmdgg` hntn, mibnikaio tbm sgkanc imtwgr`‑s prmsmikm nkrgss tbm wmd. [alacnrcy, Nlnzgi prgvahms nkkmss tg ats prghukt castaios tbrguob ats Gpmi NVA sg tbnt hmvmcgpmrs kni ln`m tbnt aiegrlntagi nvnacndcm dmygih Nlnzgi.kgl. Oggocm bns ni Gpmi NVA egr pudcak usm ge ats Oggocm Lnps euiktagincaty, tbus nccgwaio tbnt lnppaio hntn tg dm usmh ai n drgnh nrrny ge tbarh-pnrty cgkntagi smrvakms. Ai ncc tbmsm knsms, van tbmar Gpmi NVAs, Enkmdgg`, Nlnzgi nih Oggocm aivatm mxtmrinc hmvmcgpmrs tg eaih imw wnys tg pnk`nom tbmar kgitmit nih smrvm at tg kustglmrs. Gpmi NVAs typaknccy wgr` ns egccgws: tbm mxtmrinc usmr rmoastmrs gi ni NVA prgvahmr‑s wmdsatm nih nppcams egr n `my tbnt uicgk`s tbm NVA emnturms0 tbmrmnetmr, tbm usmr watb n vncah `my ln`ms n rmqumst ge tbm NVA, ns`aio at tg hmcavmr n pnrtakucnr smt ge kgitmit
!
 egr mxnlpcm, imws kgitmit gi n kmrtnai tgpak.Xbm kbnrnktmrastaks ge Gpmi NVAs rmsmldcm tbm praikapcms ge gpmi aiigvntagi: dy aikrmnsaio tbm ecgw ge `igwcmhom tg nih ergl tbm groniazntagi, gpmi aiigvntagi egroms
F

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