order (Greek: Ιωνικός ρυθμός) forms one of the three
orders or organizational systems of classical architecture, the othertwo canonic orders being the Doric and the Corinthian. (There are twolesser orders, the stocky Tuscan order and the rich variant of Corinthian, the Composite order, added by 16th century Italianarchitectural theory and practice.)The Ionic capital is characterized by the use of volutes. The Ioniccolumns normally stand on a base which separates the shaft of thecolumn from the stylobate or platform; The cap is usually enrichedwith egg-and-dart.The
order is one of the three principal classical orders of ancient Greek and Roman architecture.The other two are the Doric and Ionic. When classical architecture was revived during the Renaissance, twomore orders were added to the canon, the Tuscan order and the Composite order. The Corinthian, with itsoffshoot the Composite, is stated to be the most ornate of the orders, characterized by slender fluted columnsand elaborate capitals decorated with acanthus leaves and scrolls.The name "Corinthian" is derived from the Greeks of Corinth, although its own in Roman practice, followingprecedents set by the Temple of Mars Ultor in the Forum of Augustus (ca. 2 AD). It is employed in southernGaul at the Maison Carrée, Nîmes (illustration, below) and at the comparable podium temple at Vienne. Otherprime examples noted by Mark Wilson Jones are the lower order of the Basilica Ulpia and the arch at Ancona(both of the reign of Trajan, 98
117) the "column of Phocas" (re-erected in Late Antiquity but 2nd century inorigin), and the "Temple of Bacchus" at Baalbek (ca. 150 CE).
is one of the ancient styles of classical architecture,each distinguished by its proportions and
characteristic profiles and details, and most readily recognizable by the type of column employed. Three
ancient orders of architecture
originated in Greece. To these the Romansadded the Tuscan,which they made simpler than Doric, and the Composite,which was more ornamental than
the Corinthian. The
like the intervals of music, and it raises
certain expectations in an audience attuned to its language.
Each style has distinctive capitals and entablatures.The shaft is sometimes articulated with vertical hollow
grooves known as fluting.The shaft is wider at the bottom than at the top, because its entasis,beginning a
third of the way up, imperceptibly makes the column slightly more slender at the top.