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Satellite Phone Networks With Emphasis On

Satellite Phone Networks With Emphasis On

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Published by sanjeevpanwar

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Published by: sanjeevpanwar on Jan 12, 2009
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01/15/2011

 
SATELLITE PHONE NETWORKS WITH EMPHASIS ONIRADIUM AND ODYSSEYBYSanjeev Kumar
 
1.A
 
communications satellite
 
(sometimes abbreviated to
 
comsat) is anartificial
stationed in space for the purposes of 
.Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits including
,
, other 
and low (
and non-polar)Earth orbits.For fixed (
) services, communications satellites providea
technology complementary to that of 
. They are also used for mobile applications such ascommunications to ships, vehicles, planes and hand-held terminals, and for TVand radio
, for which application of other technologies, such ascable, is impractical or impossible .GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE2.A satellite in ageostationary orbitappears to be in a fixed position to anearth-based observer. A geostationary satellite revolves around the earth at aconstant speed once per day over the equator.The geostationary orbit is useful for communications applications becauseground based antennas, which must be directed toward the satellite, can operateeffectively without the need for expensive equipment to track the satellite’smotion. Especially for applications that require a large number of groundantennas (such as direct TV distribution), the savings in ground equipment canmore than justify the extra cost and onboard complexity of lifting a satellite intothe relatively high geostationary orbit.The concept of the geostationary communications satellite was first proposed byArthur C. Clarke, building on work byKonstantin Tsiolkovskyand on the 1929 work byHerman Potočnik (writing asHerman Noordung) Das Problem der  Befahrung des Weltraums - der Raketen-motor. In October 1945Clarke publishedan article titled “Extra-terrestrial Relays” in the British magazineWireless World. The article described the fundamentals behind the deployment of artificial satellitesin geostationary orbits for the purpose of relaying radio signals. ThusArthur C. Clarke is often quoted as being theinventor of the communicationssatellite.
 
The first truly geostationary satellite launched in orbit was theSyncom 3,launched onAugust 19,1964. It was placed in orbit at 180° eastlongitude, over  theInternational Date Line. It was used that same year to relay experimentaltelevision coverage on the1964 Summer OlympicsinTokyo, Japanto theUnited  States, the first television transmission sent over thePacific Ocean. Shortly afteSyncom 3,Intelsat I, aka Early Bird, was launched onApril  6,1965and placed in orbit at 28° west longitude. It was the first geostationary satellite for telecommunications over theAtlantic Ocean.On November 9,1972, North America's first geostationary satellite serving the continent,Anik A1, was launched byTelesat Canada, with theUnited  Statesfollowing suit with the launch of Westar 1byWestern UniononApril  13,1974. OnDecember 19,1974, the first geostationary communications satellite in the world to bethree-axis stabilizedwas launched: the Franco-GermanSymphonie. After the launchings of Telstar, Syncom 3, Early Bird, Anik A1, and Westar 1,RCA Americom (later GE Americom, nowSES Americom) launchedSatcom 1in 1975. It was Satcom 1 that was instrumental in helping earlycable TVchannelssuch as WTBS (nowTBS Superstation),HBO,CBN(nowABC Family), andThe Weather Channelbecome successful, because these channels distributedtheir programming to all of the localcable TV headendsusing the satellite. Additionally, it was the first satellite used by broadcast television networks in theUnited States, likeABC, NBC, andCBS, to distribute their programming their  local affiliate stations.Satcom 1was so widely used because it had twice thecommunications capacity of the competing Westar 1 in America(24transpondersas opposed to the 12 of Westar 1), resulting in lowetransponder-usage costs. Satellites in later decades tended to have even higher transponder numbers.By 2000Hughes Space and Communications(nowBoeing Satellite Development  Center ) had built nearly 40 percent of the more than one hundred satellites inservice worldwide. Other major satellite manufacturers includeSpace Systems/Loral,Lockheed Martin(owns former RCA Astro Electronics/GE Astro Space business), Northrop Grumman, Alcatel Space, nowThales Alenia Space, with theSpacebusseries, andEADS Astrium..

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