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HP-PN8510-5A_Network Analysis Specifying Calibration Standards

HP-PN8510-5A_Network Analysis Specifying Calibration Standards

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05/10/2014

 
Network AnalysisSpecifying calibrationstandards for the HP 8510network analyzer
Product Note 8510-5A
 
Table of Contents
Introduction
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Measurement Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Measurement Calibration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Calibration Kit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Standard Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Class Assignment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Modification Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7Select Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Define Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8Standard Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Standard Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9C0, Cl, C2 and C3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Short Circuit Inductance Lo’ Ll, L2 and L3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11Fixed or Sliding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Terminal Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Offset Delay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Offset Z0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Offset Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Lower/Minimum Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Upper/Maximum Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Coax or Waveguide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Standard Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Assign Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17Standard Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17S
ll
A,B,C and S
22
A,B,C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18Forward Transmission Match/Thru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18Reverse Transmission Match/Thru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18Isolation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19Frequency Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19TRL Thru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19TRL Reflect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19TRL Line . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Standard Class Labels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20TRL Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Calibration Kit Label . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Enter Standards/Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Verify Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21
User Modified Cal Kits and HP 8510A Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22
Modification Examples
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23Modeling a Thru Adapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23Modeling an Arbitrary Impedance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Appendix A
Calibration Kit Entry Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
Appendix B
Dimensional Considerations In Coaxial Connectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27
2
Known devices called calibrationstandards provide the measurementreference for network analyzer error-correction. This note covers methods forspecifying these standards anddescribes the procedures for their usewith the HP 8510 network analyzer.The HP 8510 network analyzer systemhas the capability to make real-timeerror-corrected measurements of components and devices in a variety of transmission media. Fundamentally, allthat is required is a set of knowndevices (standards) that can be definedphysically or electrically and used toprovide a reference for the physicalinterface of the test devices.Hewlett-Packard supplies fullcalibration kits in 7mm, 3.5mm andType-N coaxial interfaces. The HP 8510system can be calibrated in otherinterfaces such as other coaxial types,waveguide and microstrip, given goodquality standards that can be defined.The HP 8510’s built-in flexibility forcalibration kit definition allows the userto derive a precise set of definitions for aparticular set of calibration standardsfrom precise physical measurements.For example, the characteristicimpedance of a matched impedanceairline can be defined from its actualphysical dimensions (diameter of outerand inner conductors) and electricalcharacteristics (skin depth). Althoughthe airline is designed to provide perfectsignal transmission at the connectioninterface, the dimensions of individualairlines will vary somewhat-resulting insome reflection due to the change inimpedance between the test port andthe airline. By defining the actualimpedance of the airline, the resultantreflection is characterized and can beremoved through measurementcalibration.The scope of this product note includes ageneral description of the capabilities of the HP 8510 to accept new cal kitdescriptions via the MODIFY CAL KITfunction found in the HP 8510 CALmenu. It does not, however, describehow to design a set of physicalstandards. The selection and fabricationof appropriate calibration standards isas varied as the transmission media of the particular application and is beyondthe scope of this note.
 
This product note covers measurement calibration requirements forthe HP 8510B network analyzer. All of the capabilities described inthis note also apply to the HP 8510A with the following exceptions:Response & Isolation calibration; Short circuit inductance; classassignments for forward/reverse isolation, TRL Thru, Reflect, Lineand Options; and Adapter Removal.
Measurement Errors
Measurement errors in network analysis can be separated into twocategories: random and systematic errors. Both random andsystematic errors are vector quantities. Random errors are non-repeatable measurement variations and are usually unpredictable.Systematic errors are repeatable measurement variations in the testsetup.Systematic errors include mismatch and leakage signals in the testsetup, isolation characteristics between the reference and test signalpaths, and system frequency response. In most microwavemeasurements, systematic errors are the most significant source omeasurement uncertainty. The source of these errors can beattributed to the signal separation scheme used.The systematic errors present in an S-parameter measurement canbe modeled with a signal flowgraph. The flowgraph model, which isused for error correction in the HP 8510 for the errors associatedwith measuring the S-parameters of a two port device, is shown inthe figure below.The six systematic errors in the forward directionare directivity, source match, reflection tracking,load match, transmission tracking and isolation.The reverse error model is a mirror image, givinga total of 12 errors for two-port measurements.The process of removing these systematic errorsfrom the network analyzer S-parametermeasurement is called measurement calibration.E
DF
, E
DR
-Directivity E
LF
, E
LR
-Load MatchE
SF
, E
SR
-Source MatchE
TF
, E
TR
-Trans. TrackingE
RF
, E
RR
-Refl. Tracking E
XF
, E
XR
-Isolation
Measurement Calibration
A more complete definition of measurementcalibration using the HP 8510, and a description of the error models is included in the HP 8510operating and programming manual. The basicideas are summarized here.A measurement calibration is a process whichmathematically derives the error model for theHP 8510. This error model is an array of vector3
Introduction
Figure 1. HP 8510 Full 2-Port Error Model

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