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Table Of Contents

Acknowledgements
Preface
1. Introduction: A World in Local Livelihoods
The Focus on ’Local’ and ’Livelihoods’
Research Themes
Notes on the Writing
Disposition
2. Local Livelihoods in Dynamic Contexts
Complex Approaches in a Complex World
Constructivism and Interdisciplinarity
Anthropological Methods and Relativism
Beginning with the Local Perspective
Conceptualisation of Local Worlds in Planning Contexts
Viewing Local Worlds Through the Biased Western Eye
Implementation of Western Ideas in African Localities
Policies for Local Job Creation
Policies for Conservation and Resource Use Restrictions
The Degradation Narrative
Degradation Narratives in Transkei and South Africa
Livelihoods Approaches for Local Analysis
Introducing Livelihoods Approaches
The Sustainable Livelihoods Framework
Basic Needs and Livelihood Security
Diversification and ‘Multiple Livelihood Strategies’
Poverty, Vulnerability and Policies
A Brief Historical Introduction to South Africa
Policies and Projects in the “New” South Africa
South African Poverty Relief Programmes
The Social Grant System
Restrictions on Local Natural Resource Use
Environment and Tourism
Rural Livelihoods in Transkei
Changes in Rural Livelihoods during Colonial Times
Apartheid Policies Impacting on Rural Livelihoods
Pondoland and the Case Study Villages
Cutwini25
4. Processes of Field Research
Collecting the Field Data
Participation and Observations
Initiating Fieldwork
Working with Assistants
Definitions Adopted for Data Collection
The Household Survey
Creating the Questionnaire
The Survey Process
Qualitative Interviews
Follow-up Household Interviews
Key Informant Interviews in the Villages
Interviews with Local Officials, NGOs and Researchers31
Collection of Spatial Data
Analysis and Presentation of Results
5. Village Life in Cutwini and Manteku
Households, Families and Homesteads
Size and Composition of Households
Household Life Cycles and Family Types
Social Networks – Relatives, Neighbours and Friends
Local Stratifications in Society
The Status of Women
The Institution of Marriage
Village Institutions for Decision-Making
Ceremonies, Events and Daily Socialising
Meeting Daily Basic Needs
Box B. Family Income/Expenditure Example
Healthcare and Diseases
Box C. Common Articles Sold at the Spaza-Shop in Cutwini
Education
Infrastructure and Transportation
6. Livelihood Activities in the Study Area
A Framework for Analysing Livelihoods
Monetary Livelihood Activities
Jobs
Local Employment
Poverty Relief Programmes
Informal Jobs
Labour Migration
Piece Jobs
Governmental Grants
Natural Resource-Based Livelihood Activities
Water
Firewood and Building Material
Agriculture51
Domestic Animals
Grazing Lands
Gathering of Wild Resources and Hunting
Marine Resources
Generating Money from Natural Resources
Calculating the Relative Value of Livelihoods
New Perspectives on Livelihoods in Pondoland
Box D. Conclusion about Livelihoods in the Studied Villages
The Importance of (Local) Jobs
Local Jobs versus Labour Migration
The Role of Informal Employment
The Relative Unimportance of Environmental Resources
7. The Dynamics of Livelihood Strategies
Diversification of Livelihoods
Combining Similar Livelihood Activities
Diversifying Livelihoods across Categories
A State and Transition Analysis of Livelihood Changes
Strategies and Livelihoods
Feelings of Livelihood Security
Multiple Livelihood Strategies?
Patterns of Vulnerability and Implications of Poverty
Vulnerable Families
Local Coping Mechanisms in Times of Crises
Poverty as a Barrier to Securing a Livelihood
Attitudes to Money, Saving and Borrowing
Policies and Local Livelihoods
Impacts of Previous Policies on Local Livelihoods
Current Policies and Considerations for the Future
Restrictions in Use of Marine and Forest Resources
Box E. Local Perceptions of Restrictions in Natural Resource Use
Agricultural Policies
Policies for Job Creation
Box F. The Case of Illegal Cottages in Manteku*
Working for Water and Coast Care Programmes
Policies for Sustainable Livelihoods
Policies, Local Knowledge and Participation
9. Discussion: Dynamics of Local Worlds
Changing Livelihoods in Rural Transkei
Local Worlds and National Policies
The Problematics of Scale and Planning
Simple Solutions to Complex Problems?
Local Views of Problems and Policies
Critical Views of Transkeian Narratives
A General Conclusion not to Generalise?
References
Bibliography
Internet Sources
Aerial Photographs and Maps71
Interviews
Interviews with Officials, Researchers and NGO Representatives
Interviews with Local Informants
List of Local Interpreters and Assistants
List of Contents, CD
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Published by: ollachan on Jul 30, 2012
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