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Pre-IB Biology Exam Review, Midterm

Pre-IB Biology Exam Review, Midterm

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Published by: Julie on Jan 14, 2008
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 January 13, 2007 3
rd
Period Biology
Pre-IB Biology Exam Review
CHARACTERISTICS OF LIVING THINGSOrganization and CellsThe organization in a complex organism from smallest to largest is from
atom 
 to
biological molecule
to
organelle
to
cell 
to
tissue
to
organ 
 
to organ system 
to
organism 
.
Organ systems 
are made up of 
organs 
, structures that carry outspecialized jobs. These are composed of 
tissues 
, groups of cells that have similarabilities and that allow the organ to function. A
cell 
is the smallest unit that canperform all of life’s functions. It must be covered by a membrane, contain all geneticinformation necessary for replication, and be able to carry out all cell functions. Eachcell has
organelles 
, structures that carry out functions necessary for the cell to stayalive. These organelles contain
biological molecules 
, chemical compounds thatprovide physical structure and bring about cellular functions. All biological moleculesare made up of 
atoms 
, the simplest particle of an element that retains all of theproperties of a certain element.Response to StimuliOrganisms must be able to respond and react to changes in their environmentto stay alive. Responding to
stimuli 
– physical or chemical changes in the internal orexternal environment, is a characteristic of life.HomeostasisHomeostasis is the maintenance of a stable level of internal conditions eventhough environmental conditions are constantly changing. For example, somecreatures will have several ways to maintain a constant body temperature in coldweather, such as an owl, which can trap an insulating layer of air next to the bird’sbody to maintain its body temperature. Its cells can also burn fuel to produce bodyheat in such conditions.MetabolismLiving organisms use energy to power all the life processes, such as repair,movement, and growth. This energy use depends on metabolismmetabolismmetabolismmetabolism, the sum of allchemical reactions that take in and transform energy in the body.Growth and DevelopmentAll living things grow and increase in size. Cell divisionCell divisionCell divisionCell division is the formation of twonew cells from an existing cell. In unicellular organisms, the primary change after celldivision is cell growth. In multicellular organisms, cell division, cell enlargement, andcell development is how organisms mature.
 
 January 13, 2007 3
rd
Period Biology
Pre-IB Biology Exam Review
DevelopmentDevelopmentDevelopmentDevelopment is the process by which an organism becomes a mature adult bycell differentiation (specialization). As a result, an adult organism is composed of many cells specialized for different functions, such as carrying oxygen in blood orhearing.ReproductionAll organisms produce new organisms like themselves in the process of reproductionreproductionreproductionreproduction, necessary for the survival of the species, but not for the survival of theindividual organism. During reproduction, organisms transmit hereditary information totheir offspring in the form of DNA in segments called genesgenesgenesgenes. Reproduction can besexual (two organisms) or asexual (one organism). Asexual reproduction iscomparable to cloning.Change Through TimePopulations of living things
evolve
or change through time. This ability isimportant for survival in a changing world, and explains the diversity of life-forms seenon Earth today.SCIENTIFIC METHODScience is characterized by the scientific methodscientific methodscientific methodscientific method, an organized approach tolearn how the natural world works.Steps of the Scientific Method1.1.1.1.
 
The process begins with an observationobservationobservationobservation, the act of perceiving a naturaloccurrence that causes someone to pose a question.2.2.2.2.
 
One tries to answer the question by forming a hypothesishypothesishypothesishypothesis, a proposedexplanation for the way a particular aspect of the natural world functions.3.3.3.3.
 
A predictionpredictionpredictionprediction is a statement that forecasts what would happen in a testsituation if the hypothesis were true.4.4.4.4.
 
An experimentexperimentexperimentexperiment is used to test a hypothesis and the corresponding prediction.5.5.5.5.
 
Once the experiment is finished, the data are analyzed and used to drawconclusions.6.6.6.6.
 
After the data is analyzed, the data and conclusions are communicated toscientific peers and to the public
 
 January 13, 2007 3
rd
Period Biology
Pre-IB Biology Exam Review
REACTION GRAPHS SHOWING THE ENERGY OF ACTIVATIONActivation EnergyFor most chemical reactions to begin, energymust be added to the reactants. In many chemicalreactions, the activation energyactivation energyactivation energyactivation energy, energy required tostart the reaction, is very large.Certain chemical substances, known ascatalystscatalystscatalystscatalysts, reduce the amount of activation energyneeded. An enzymeenzymeenzymeenzyme is a protein or RNA moleculethat speeds up metabolic reactions without beingpermanently changed or destroyed.ENZYMESStructure and FunctionEnzymesEnzymesEnzymesEnzymes are RNA or protein molecules that act as biological catalysts.Enzyme reactions depend on a physical fit between the enzyme molecule and itsspecific substratesubstratesubstratesubstrate, the reactant being catalyzed. The enzyme has folds, or an activeactiveactiveactivesitesitesitesite, with a shape that allows the substrate to fit into the active site.The linkage of the enzyme and substrate causes a slight change in theenzyme’s shape, which weakens some chemical bonds in the substrate. After thereaction, the enzyme releases the products.An enzyme may not work if its environment is changed. For example, changesin temperature and pH may cause a change in the shape of an enzyme or substrate,causing the reaction the enzyme would have catalyzed to not occur.OXIDATION REDUCTION REACTIONSThe reactions in which electrons are transferred between atoms are known asoxidation reduction reactions, or redox reactionsredox reactionsredox reactionsredox reactions. In an oxidation reactionoxidation reactionoxidation reactionoxidation reaction, a reactantloses one or more electrons, thus becoming more positive in charge. When a reactantgains one or more electrons, it is in a reduction reactionreduction reactionreduction reactionreduction reaction, and becomes more negativein charge. Redox reactions always occur together. There must always be a substanceto accept an electron that another substance has lost.

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