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Diamond Separation of Powers and the Mix

Diamond Separation of Powers and the Mix

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AsFARASREPUBLICANPRINCIPLESWILLADMIT
EssaysbyMartinDiamond
Edited
by
WilliamA.Schambra
HERETHEPEOPLERULE
SelectedEssays:SecondEditionEdward
C.
Banfield
AsFarasRepublicanPrinciples
WillAdmit
Essaysby
MartinDiamond
F
sa
s
n
IT
nrl
LANDMARKSOFCONTEMPORARYPOLITICALTHOUGHT
Christopher
C.
DeMuth,serieseditor
WHYBLACKS,WOMEN,ANDJEWSARENOTMENTIONEDIN
THE
CONSTITUTION,ANDOTHERUNORTHODOXVIEWS
RobertA.Goldwin
TOWARDAMOREPERFECTUNION
WritingsofHerbert
J.
Storing
ONCHARACTER
Essays
by
James
Q.
Wilson
TheAEIPress
PublisherfortheAmericanEnterpriseInstitute
WASHINGTON,D.C.
1992
 
h
IE
In
Contents'
SupportfromtheEarhartFoundationandfromtheInstituteforEdu-cationalAffairsisgratefullyacknowledged.TheeditoralsowishestothankMrs.AnnStuartAndersonforhervaluableassistance.
e
e
v
.If
o
ic
.ABOUT
THE
AUTHORvii
1
EDITOR'SINTRODUCTION
William
A.
Schambra
1PARTONEFOUNDATIONS:THEDEMOCRATICREPUBLIC
2
DEMOCRACYAND
THEFEDERALIST:
ARECONSIDERATIONOFTHEFRAMERS'INTENT17
3
THEFEDERALIST:
1787-1788
37
4
THESEPARATIONOFPOWERSANDTHEMIXEDREGIME58
5
CONSERVATIVES,IBERALS,ANDTHECONSTITUTION68PARTTwoDECENTRALISTEDERALISMANDREPUBLICANVIRTUE
6
WHATTHEFRAMERSMEANTBYFEDERALISM93
7
THEFEDERALISTS
VIEWOFFEDERALISM108
8
THEENDSOFFEDERALISM144
9
THEFEDERALIST
ONFEDERALISM:NEITHERANATIONALNORAFEDERALCONSTITUTION"167
10
THEFORGOTTENDOCTRINEOFENUMERATEDOWERS179
11
THEELECTORALCOLLEGEANDTHEAMERICANIDEAOFDEMOCRACY186DistributedbyarrangementwithNationalBookNetwork4720BostonWayLanham,MD207063HenriettaStreetLondonWC2E8LUEngland
)(
LibraryofCongressCataloging-in-PublicationDataDiamond,Martin,1919-Asfarasrepublicanprincipleswilladmit:essays/byMartinDiamond;editedbyWilliam
A.
Schambra.p.cm.-(AEIstudies;527)Includesindex.ISBN0-8447-3784-4
1.
PoliticalScience-UnitedStates-History.
I.
Schambra,WilliamA.
II.
Series.JA84.U5D491991320.5'0973-dc2091-18417CIPAEIStudies527©1992bytheAmericanEnterpriseInstituteforPublicPolicyRe-search,Washington,D.C.
All
rightsreserved.Nopartofthispubli-cationmaybeusedorreproducedinanymannerwhatsoeverwithoutpermissioninwritingfromtheAmericanEnterpriseInstituteexceptinthecaseofbriefquotationsembodied
in
newsarticles,criticalarticles,orreviews.TheviewsexpressedinthepublicationsoftheAmericanEnterpriseInstitutearethoseoftheauthorsanddonotnecessarilyreflecttheviews'ofthestaff,advisorypanels,officers,ortrusteesofAEI.TheAEIPressPublisherfortheAmericanEnterpriseInstitute115017thStreet,N.W.,Washington,
D.C.
20036
PrintedintheUnitedStatesofAmerica
 
4
TheSeparationofPowersandtheMixedRegime
Diamondinsistedthatanaccurateunderstandingofthefounders'intentionsrequiredafirmgraspofthedistinctionbetweentheirschemeofseparationofpowersandthetraditionalideaofthemixedregime.Inthislecture
to
theWoodrowWilsonCenter(publishedposthumouslyina
1978
issue
ofPublius:TheJournalofFederalism),
Diamondexploresthat
distinction
andpointsoutthatourversionoftheseparationofpowerstestifiesbothtotheprofoundmodernityandthefullrepublicanismofourregime.
Theseparationofpowersisamoderninventionanditsmodernityisdecisivetoitsunderstanding.TheAmericanfoundersunderstoodthatmodernitywell.Hamilton,forexample,liststheseparationofpowersasoneofthoseprinciples"whichwereeithernotknownatall,orimperfectlyknowntotheancients."!Moreprecisely,thesepa-rationofpowerswasconceivedandelaboratedinthecenturyfromLocketoMontesquieutotheAmericanfounding.Atthebeginning,however,
it
emergesinwaysthatareconfusinglyentangledwiththetraditionalideaofthemixedregime.EveninMontesquieuthedis-entanglementisnotcomplete.ButintheAmericanfounding,theseparationofpowersreceivesitsdistinctandfullformulationandem-bodiment;thisperplexingideaisthusespeciallyvisibleinthemo-mentofourfounding.Accor.tionourselves,as
it
were,withinthefoundingistosecureavantagepointor
100
nbacward~ongmofteseparationofpowers,orwartoitspractical~to!)"andcomprehensivelyatitsnature..
.It
shouldimmediatelybenotiCettthat,inthusemphasizingthe
58
1
t
!
!
I
I
SEPARATIONOFPOWERS
modernityoftheseparationofpowers,Iamtreatingitastheinven-tionofwhatmanyrightlycall"thenewscienceofpolitics."Butthis,ofcourse,istogoagainstmuchoftheliteratureonthesubject.Mostcommentatorstracetheseparationofpowersbacktoinstitutionsandideashavingtheirrootsinmedievalismor,typically,backtothean-cientGreeks.Forexample,somefindinAristotle'sfamousaccount(inBook
IV
ofthe
Politics)
ofthe"parts"or"pieces"ofpoliticalrule,othersinhisideaofthemixedregimeorpolity,themoreorlessdirectforebearsoftheseparationofpowers.Incontrast,forreasonsthat
I
hopewillbecomeclearandwillseemimportant,
I
arguetheradicalnoveltyoftheseparationofpower.Thenotionthatitsomehowisde-scendedfromtheA..erestsartl,
I
hink,one
0
owmgarment:thesearationofpowersisaspeciesoftheenus
lV1Slonofower;
themixeregunewaslikewiseaspeoesofthatgenus;an,therefore,theformerdescendsfromthelatter.Thesamecommentatorswillalsosaythatfederalismissuchaspecies,a~dbicameralismlikewise.Everythingalwaysturnsouttobeaspe-
cies
ofthatgenusandeverythingisalwaystracedbacktotheGreeks.
!r;.
averyvagu~sensethjsisallguitetrue,buttoovaguetobeuseful
ill
thepresentmstance.Indeed,allpoliticalarrangements,preciselyinbeingpolitical,involvesomesortofdivisionordistributionofpoweraccordingtosomeprincipleuponwhichthecommunityisbased.(Thisincludesallexcepttheimaginedphilosopher-kingandpuretyranniesordespotisms;but,then,nooneseriouslycallsthese
political
systems,whichmakesmypoint.)Nowjustasitisusuallyfoolishtohaveaclasswithnomembers,itisalsofoolishtohaveaclassorgenusofwhicheverythingisamember.Bylumpingtogetherseparationofpowersandthetraditionalmixedregimeasspeciesofsuchasinglegenuswedeceiveourselvesbecauseofsuperficialfor-malsimilaritiesandmisstheimportanceofthedeepanddistinguish-ingdifferences.
I
Letusstandwiththefoundersand,fromtheirperspective,lookbackatthatlongtraditionofthemixedregime;wewillthenbestbeabletoseeiftheseparationofpowers,forwhichthefoundersoptedandunderwhichwestilllive,issoi:nehowcontinuouswiththeoldmixedregimeormustbeunderstoodassomethingradicallynewanddiffer-ent.Asamatteroffact,thisneedtocomparetheseparationofpow-erswiththemixedregimeanddecideabouttheirrelationshipissoobviousthatnearlyallcommentatorshavetotackletheproblem.
If
59

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