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Assembly language_ Ytha Yu_Chap 03

Assembly language_ Ytha Yu_Chap 03

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'?
3
"
Organization
of
the
IBM
Personal
Computers
dverview
........L~
Chapter1describedtheorganizationofatypicalmicrocom~:'\system.ThlschaptertakesacloserlookattheIBMpersonalcomputers.
'JbaIe,;
machinesarebasedontheIntel8086familyofmicroprocessors..__
!\
Afterabriefsurveyofthe
8086
familyinsection
3.1,
section
U
.H
concentratesonthe
architecture
ofthe8086.We
introduce
theregisters"',....
!
mention
some
of
their
specialfunctions.Insection
3.2.3,the
import_till.'~~ofsegmentedmemoryis
discussed.'
i'
Insection3.3,welookattheoverallstructureof
the
IIW~
*:
memoryorgarnzatlon,I/Oports,and
the
DOSandBIOSroutiols.
3.1
TheIntel8086
Family
of,
Microprocessors
..
The113Mpersonalcomputer
family
consistsof
the
PCAT,
I'SI1,
andPS/2models.Theyareallbasedon
the
ofmlcroproccssors,whichIncludesthe8086,8088.~._......80386,80386SX,80486,and80486SX.The8OSS-isXT;
till!
80286lsusedinthePCAT
and
PSll-
The
I'Cvcompatlble
lai>-top
models,The
PSl2I1DJe1s
use80]86,
or
80486..
 
383.1
TheIntel8086FamilyofMicroprocessors
The8086and
8088~
..
Intel'introducedthe8~6in1978as
iI~
first
tt)..
bitmicroprocessor(a16·hitprocessor(anoperateon16bitsofdataalatime).The8088wasintroducedin1979.Internally,the8088isessentiallythesameasthe8086.Externally,the8086hasa16..bitdatabus,whilethe8088hasanS..bitd~labus.The8086alsohasafasterclockrate,and,thushas~ttcrperformance,IBMchosethe8088overthe8086foi'theoriginalPCbecause'Uwaslessexpensivetobuildacomputeraroundthl!8088...The8086and8088havethesaine:instru~onset!
~4
it
formsthebasicseiof
tnstructtons
forthe
othermkroprocessorsinthe
family..
1'
The80186and80188MiuoiJrocessors.
The80186and80lS8arcenhancedversionsofthe80a6and8088,respectively.TheiradvantageisthattheyincorporatealltheIuncuonsorthe8086and8088microprocessorsplusthoseofsomesupportchips.Tlwy
C,IIl
alsoexecutesomenewinstructionscalledthe
'extmdetl
illslrilCticlIl
,~"t.
1Iow-ever,theseprocessorsofferednosignificufltadvantageoverthe8086and8088andweresoonovershadowed
by
tiledevelopmentofthe80286.
The80286MicroprocessQr
The80286,introducedin1982,isalsoa16-bitmicroprocessor,How..ever,itcanoperatefasterthanthe8086(12.SMIlzversus10t-.1Hz)andoiTcI'thefollowingimportantadvancesoveritspredecessors:
1.Tmu
w1
,u·
s
·"f'1I/,ewtjlll!.
The
800s6all
oper,lte
in
diller..
~I~
dress
"lude
or
I,rutcctedvirtualaddressIllude.In
realad-'~e,the.Sq286behaYe51ikethe80if6,andprogramsforthe8086can
be
executedinthismodewithoutmodlficatlon.In.protectedvirtualaddressmode,
also
called
Itrotcctedmode,
the80286supportsmultitasking.whichisthealJilitytoexecuteseveralprograms(tasks)at.
the:
sametime,and
mcmorypretec-
lion,whichistheability
to
piotect
thememoryused
by
onepro..gram(romtheactionsolanotherprogram.
.2.
M,fJIl!
lldtlH'JSdl1/c
memory.
The80286in
protected
mode
can
af,l..
di~
ph)'5iCalmemory(asopposedtoI'megu-bytefor
theHl,'H6and
8(88).
3.Virum/mC:l/lory
ill
protectedmOlle.
Thismeansthatthe80286
C,IIl
~disk)
4IS
Uit
werephysicalmem..ory,andthereforeexecuteprogramsthatarc
100
largetobJ
LUll"
talnedinp~ysicalmemory;suchprogramscanheupto1gigabyte
(2""
bytes).'..
\
\
J>.
The80386and80386SX
Microprocessors
Intelintroduceditsfirst32-bitmicroprocessor,the80386(or386),
in
1
eJH5.It
ismuch
faster
thanthe80286because
it
has
;1
]2..bit
dat;1
path,hi~hclockrate(lipto:nMHz),andtheabilityto
CXI,'l'Uh'
lnsrrucuons
:!T
a·I\·,'r
clockl")'dL'~Ih,lll111S02!;!>.
LiketheH02tl6,
the
:~a6canoperate
ill
eitherrealor(lwlt'{"kd
11.....
1,,-.
Inrealmode,itbehaveslikeal48086.Inprotectedmode,
it
Gill
emulate11.<
BOlli6.
It
also
hasa
vi~lll~t180}/,(imude,'
uesignedtorunmultiple
HllSlI
aepli..cationsundermemoryprotection.The·:UI6,inprotectedmode,canad...
-4
gigabytesof
physical
memory,and1terabytes(2~(,
bytl'S)
or
vlrtualme
v.,
'\
.--.~-
-~.~--
~--.----
-.:._--------~
 
;:,,"~'~-
'.~
....,t.=;:..
Chapter
3
Organization
of
the
IBM
Personal
C~&I
s
~jj
L-_
The386SXhasessentiallythesameinternalstructureas
the...
butithasonlya16-bitdatabus.
The80486andB04865XMicroprocessors
Introducedin1989,the80486(or486),
is
another3Z·bitmicropro-cessor.
It
Isthefastestandmostpowerfulprocessorinthefamily.Itlncor-poratesthefunctionsofthe386togetherwiththoseofothersupportchips,includingthe80387numericprocessor,whichperformsfloating-pointnum-beroperations,
andanS·KII
cachememorythatservesasafastmemoryareatobufferdatacomingfromtheslowermemory'unlt..Withitsnumericpro·cesser,cachememory,andmoreadvanceddesign,the486isthreetimesfasterthana386runningatthesamedockspeed,The486SXissimilartothe486butwithoutthefloating-paintprocessor,
3.2
Organization'
of
the
808618088
Microprocessors
Intherestofthischapterwe'llconcentrateontheorganizationofthe8086and8088.Theseprocessorshavethesimpleststructure,andmostoftheInstructionswewillstudyarc8086/80811instructlons.Theyalsopro-videinsight
to
theorganrzatlonofthemoreadvancedprocessors,~is(Us~cu
in
Chapter20.Becausethe8086and8088haveessentiallythesameinternalstruc-ture,inthefollowing,thename"8086
N
appliestobothHOK6and8088.
r
3.2.1
Registers
AsnotedinChapter
1,
informationinside
the
microprocessor
is
storedInregisters.Theregistersareclassifiedaccordingtothefunctionstheyperform.Ingeneral,
c1(ltaregisters
holddataforanoperation,
addressregisters
holdtheaddressofaninstruction
or
data,anda
St"t~.IS
r(':{iSleT
keepsthecurrentstatusoftheprocessor,The8086has(ourgeneraldataregisters;theaddressregistersaredividedinlo,~['
lPIellt,Jojll/er,
and
ill.lexr~sisters;
a~
calle
c
FLAGS
Fe
isla.
In
total,therearcfourteen16·bitregisters,whichwenowbrieflydescribe.'eeFigure
3.1.
Note:
You
don'tneedIo
memorizethespecialfunctionsoftheseregistersatthistime,Theywillbecomefamiliarwithlise.
I
I
~
3.2.2
DataRegisters:AX,BX.
ex,
DX
Thesefourregistcrsarcavailabletotheprogrammerforgeneraldatamanipulation.Eventhough
the
processorcanoperateondatastoredinmem-ory,thesameinstructionisfaster(requiresfewerclockcycles)iftheqataarestoredinregisters.Thisiswhymodernprocessorstendtohavealot
ofregisters.
.Thehighandlowbytesofthedataregisterscanbeaccessed~
rately,
ThehighbyteofAX
iscalledAH,
andthelowbyteis
AL.Su_niIarIy.
thehighandlowbytesof
BX,
ex,
andOXarc
Btl
and
BL,CH
and
a.
011
andDL,respectively,Thisarrangementgivesus.moreregisters
to
ale.....-
dealing
withbyte-sizedata,Thesefourre,gisters,,inadditiontobeinggencral-puqxase
-d.
#'60~
alsoperformspecialfunctionssuchastheIollowlng,

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