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2. Turbine Manual

2. Turbine Manual

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Ban chuan bi san xuat
Version (a) 15 September 2010Mr : Le Duy Hanh
Power PlantGeneral Series Course
Volume 2
Turbine Manual
 
 
TechComm Simulation Pty Ltd
 
Turbine manual Version (a) 15 September, 2010`Page 2 of 190
 
TechComm Simulation Pty Ltd
 
Table of contents
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................ 52. LEARNING OUTCOMES ............................................................................... 63. DISCLAIMER ................................................................................................. 64. ASSESSMENT: EVALUATION, RECORDING AND REPORTING .............. 75. HISTORY OF THE STEAM TURBINE ........................................................... 8
5.1 Early applications .................................................................................................. 85.2 Benefits of steam turbines .................................................................................... 8
6. STEAM TURBINE OPERATION ................................................................... 9
6.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................... 96.2 Principles of operation of a steam turbine .......................................................... 96.3 Classification of turbines .................................................................................... 10
6.3.1 Type of flow ................................................................................................................106.3.2 Cylinder arrangement .................................................................................................126.3.3 Trainee exercise: ........................................................................................................18
6.4 Types of blading .................................................................................................. 19
6.4.1 Impulse ......................................................................................................................196.4.2 Reaction .....................................................................................................................266.4.3 Trainee exercise: ........................................................................................................29
6.5 Turbine Nozzle Plates or Diaphragms ................................................................ 31
6.5.1 Nozzle Plate ...............................................................................................................316.5.2 Trainee exercise .........................................................................................................35
6.6 Basic steam cycle................................................................................................ 36
6.6.1 Trainee exercise: ........................................................................................................39
6.7 Turbine efficiency and wet steam ...................................................................... 40
6.7.1 Deposits on blades .....................................................................................................406.7.2 Steam inlet conditions.................................................................................................416.7.3 Steam exhaust conditions ...........................................................................................416.7.4 Factor affecting condenser back pressure. ..................................................................436.7.5 Trainee exercise .........................................................................................................44
7. COMPONENTS OF A TURBINE ................................................................. 46
7.1 Turbine cylinder(s) .............................................................................................. 47
7.1.1 Casing flanges............................................................................................................517.1.2 Flange warming ..........................................................................................................537.1.3 Trainee exercise .........................................................................................................55
7.2 Turbine rotor ........................................................................................................ 58
7.2.1 Forged steel drum rotor ..............................................................................................587.2.2 Solid forged rotor ........................................................................................................59
 
 
TechComm Simulation Pty Ltd
 
Turbine manual Version (a) October 1999 Page 3 of 190
 
TechComm Simulation Pty Ltd
 
7.2.3 Disc rotor ....................................................................................................................61
7.3 Turbine blade fixing ............................................................................................ 647.4 Couplings ............................................................................................................. 70
7.4.1 Flexible couplings .......................................................................................................70
8. TURBINE GLAND SEALING ...................................................................... 75
8.1 Gland steam condenser ...................................................................................... 75
9. LUBRICATION SYSTEMS .......................................................................... 76
9.1 Function ............................................................................................................... 76
9.1.1 Oil Properties..............................................................................................................769.1.2 Causes of Oil Deterioration .........................................................................................789.1.3 Establishment of Oil Film ............................................................................................79
9.2 Components of a Turbine Lubricating Oil System ............................................ 81
9.2.1 Dissipation of Heat from Bearings ...............................................................................83
10. THRUST BEARING ..................................................................................... 9411. STEAM TURBINE SPEED CONTROL ........................................................ 95
11.1 The Principles Of Governing .............................................................................. 95
11.1.1 Turbo-Generators Operating in Parallel.......................................................................9911.1.2 The Speeder Gear of a Turbine Governor .................................................................10011.1.3 Load Sharing Between Units Fitted with Governors Having Speeder Gears ..............10111.1.4 Relays ......................................................................................................................103
11.2 Overspeed Control Of A Turbine ...................................................................... 105
11.2.1 Development of Speed Control Systems ...................................................................10511.2.2 Summary of Speed Control Systems ........................................................................10611.2.3 Speed Governor .......................................................................................................10611.2.4 Governor Control Valves...........................................................................................10611.2.5 Emergency Governor................................................................................................10711.2.6 Emergency Stop Valves ...........................................................................................10711.2.7 Bled Steam Non-Return Valves ................................................................................10711.2.8 The Secondary Governor..........................................................................................10711.2.9 The IP Interceptor Valves .........................................................................................10811.2.10 The IP Emergency Stop Valves ................................................................................10911.2.11 Bled Steam Valves ...................................................................................................10911.2.12 Governor Control Valves...........................................................................................10911.2.13 Throttle Control .........................................................................................................10911.2.14 Nozzle Control ..........................................................................................................10911.2.15 HP Emergency Stop Valves ......................................................................................11011.2.16 Load Pay Off or Unloading Gear ...............................................................................11011.2.17 Summary of Functions Performed by a Speed Control System .................................111
12. CONDENSER ............................................................................................ 113
12.1 Function of the Condenser ............................................................................... 11312.2 The Condenser as a Deaerator ......................................................................... 11412.3 Condenser Air Extraction system .................................................................... 11712.4 Types of Air Extraction Unit.............................................................................. 117

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