Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword
Like this
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Membrane Filtration

Membrane Filtration

Ratings: (0)|Views: 37 |Likes:
Published by Ly Ca Tieu
Membrane Filtration
Membrane Filtration

More info:

Categories:Types, Maps
Published by: Ly Ca Tieu on Aug 01, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less





Course № EN-1003
PotableWater -MembraneFiltration
This document is the course text. You may review this material atyour leisure before or after you purchase the course. If you have notalready purchased the course, you may do so now by returning to thecourse overview page located at:http://www.pdhengineer.com/pages/C-1008.htm(Please be sure to capitalize and use dash as shown above.)Once the course has been purchased, you can easily return to thecourse overview, course document and quiz from PDHengineer’s MyAccount menu.If you have any questions or concerns, remember you can contact usby using the Live Support Chat link located on any of our web pages,by email atadministrator@PDHengineer.comor by telephone toll-free at 1-877-PDHengineer.Thank you for choosing PDHengineer.com.
© PDHengineer.com, a service mark of Decatur Professional Development, LLC. EN-1003 C2
Membrane Filtration: Alternative toConventional Filtration
Membrane filtration systems’ capital costs, on abasis of dollars per volume of installed treat-ment capacity, do not escalate rapidly as plantsize decreases. This factor makes membranesquite attractive for small systems. In addition,for groundwater sources that do not needpretreatment, membrane technologies arerelatively simple to install, and the systemsrequire little more than a feed pump, a cleaningpump, the membrane modules, and someholding tanks. According to a 1997 report bythe National Research Council, most expertsforesee that membrane filtration will be usedwith greater frequency in small systems as thecomplexity of conventional treatment processesfor small systems increases.
New Regulations Favor MembraneTechnologies
Membrane processes have become more attrac-tive for potable water production in recent yearsdue to the increased stringency of drinkingwater regulations. Membrane processes haveexcellent separation capabilities and showpromise for meeting many of the existing andanticipated drinking water standards. TheSurface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) andthe anticipated Groundwater Disinfection Rulehave led to the investigation of UF and MF forturbidity and microbial removal. The newDisinfectants/Disinfection Byproduct (D/DBP)rules have increased interest in NF andUF membranes for DBP precursor removal.Potable water treatment has traditionallyfocused on processes for liquid-solid separationrather than on processes for removing dissolvedcontaminants from water. Thus, the effect of the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)amendments has been to encourage watertreatment professionals to consider the moreunconventional treatment processes, such asmembrane technologies, alone, or in conjunc-tion with liquid-solid separation, to meetcurrent regulations.
Comparing Membrane FiltrationSystems
While all types of membranes work well underproper conditions, choosing the most appropri-ate membrane for a given application stillremains crucial. (See Figure 1.) In many cases,selection is complicated by the availability of new types of membranes, applications, or bysite-specific conditions. Bench and pilot testsare powerful tools for situations where processrisks and uncertainties exist or the cost impactsfrom problems are potentially high.Membrane classification standards vary consid-erably from one filter supplier to another. What
A membrane or, more properly, a semipermeable membrane, is a thin layer of materialcapable of separating substances when a driving force is applied across the membrane.Once considered a viable technology only for desalination, membrane processes are increas-ingly employed for removal of bacteria and other microorganisms, particulate material, andnatural organic material, which can impart color, tastes, and odors to the water and reactwith disinfectants to form disinfection byproducts (DBP). As advancements are made inmembrane production and module design, capital and operating costs continue to decline.The pressure-driven membrane processes discussed in this fact sheet are microfiltration(MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO).
MF = MicrofiltrationUF = UltrafiltrationNF = NanofiltrationRO = Reverse OsmosisED/EDR = Electrodialysis ReversalMW = Molecular Weight (in daltons)TDS = Total Dissolved SolidsIs treatment goal to remove particles >0.2 micron?Can dissolved contaminants be precipitated,coagulated, or absorbed?Is dissolved organics removal needed?Is inorganic ion removal needed?Are the ions multivalent(e.g., a softening application)?Are the dissolved organicsgreater than 10,000 MW?Are the dissolved organicsgreater than 400 MW?Are the inorganic ions to be removed multivalent(e.g., a softening application)?Is the required TDS removal greaterthan 3,000 mg/L?Is silica scale a concern?NOTE: This simplified chart is based on common assumptions and should not beapplied to every situation without more detailed analysis.A. Relative Cost• MF < UF < NF < RO or ED/EDR• If TDS removal > 3,000 mg/L,RO or ED/EDR may be less costlyB. RemovalsMF–particles > 0.2 MicronUF–organics > 10,000 MW, virus,and colloidsNF–organics > 400 MW and hardness ionsRO–salts and low MW organics• ED/EDR–SaltsParticles include
,bacteria, and turbidity
 Reprinted from
Proceedings of the 1993 Membrane Technology Conference
 , by permission.Copyright ©1993, American Water Works Association.
one supplier sells as a UF product, anothermanufacturer calls a NF system. It is better tolook directly at pore size, molecular weightcutoff (MWCO), and applied pressure neededwhen comparing two membrane systems.MWCO, which can be regarded as a measure of membrane pore dimensions, is a specificationused by membrane suppliers to describe amembrane’s retention capabilities.
Microfiltration (MF)
MF is loosely defined as a membrane separationprocess using membranes with a pore size oapproximately 0.03 to 10 microns, a MWCO of greater than 100,000 daltons, and a relativelylow feedwater operating pressure of approxi-mately 100 to 400 kPa (15 to 60 psi). Represen-tative materials removed by MF include sand,silt, clays,
Giardia lamblia

You're Reading a Free Preview

/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->