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Table Of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION
2. THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF CO2
2.1Phase transitions and phase diagram for CO2
2.1.1Phase equilibrium
2.1.2The Clausius - Clapeyron equation
2.1.3Solid - Liquid Equilibrium
2.1.4Solid – Vapour Equilibrium
2.1.5Liquid - Vapour Equilibrium
2.1.6 Phase diagram calculated from the derived equations
2.2CO2 - rock and fluid interactions
2.2.1PVT conditions
2.2.2CO2 hydrates
2.2.3Wettability
2.2.4Scale
2.3Injectivity abnormalities
2.3.1Injectivity increases
2.3.2 Injectivity reduction
2.3.3Entrapment
2.3.4Relative permeability
2.3.5Heterogeneity
2.3.6Concluding remarks on injectivity abnormalities
2.4 Advantages and disadvantages by using CO2 as a solvent in miscible floods
2.4.1Advantages
2.4.2Disadvantages
3. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY
4. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY BY MISCIBLE GAS/CO2 FLOODING
4.1Miscibility and drive mechanism
4.2 First contact miscible flooding
4.3Multiple contact miscible flooding
4.3.1Vaporizing gas drive
4.3.2Condensing gas drive
4.3.3Combined vaporizing and condensing mechanism
4.4Minimum miscible pressure from slimtube miscibility apparatus
4.5Some remarks on the MMP and the calculation of the MMP
5 SUMMARY OF CO2 FLOOD PROJECTS WORLDWIDE
5.1The Permian Basin
5.1.1The SACROC Unit in the Permian Basin
5.1.2SACROC CO2 project, key parameters
5.2The Weyburn Oil field in Canada
5.2.1Weyburn oil field, key parameters
5.2.2The Weyburn CO2 Monitoring Project
5.3EOR projects in the US and the role of CO2 floods
5.4CO2 availability and prices in US and Canada
5.4.1CO2 sources
5.4.2CO2 pipelines
5.4.3 CO2 prices
5.5US and Canadian CO2 screening criteria
5.6Experience gained from CO2 floods in US and Canada
5.7Discussing
6.1 The Sleipner field
6.2 The Forties field
6.2.1 Forties CO2 EOR project
6.3The Ekofisk field
6.3.1Ekofisk EOR screening
6.3.2Ekofisk CO2 WAG study
6.4. The Brage field
6.4.1Brage Statfjord South CO2 WAG injection study
6.5. The Gullfaks field
6.5.1Gullfaks Brent CO2 WAG study
6.6 Summary and discussion of the North Sea CO2 studies
7. SCREENING OF CANDIDATES FOR TERTIARY CO2 FLOODS
7.1Screening method
7.2Calculation of MMP
7.2.1Minimum miscibility pressure calculations
7.2.2Combined drive mechanism
8. ESTIMATION OF THE CO2 EOR POTENTIAL
8.1Method
8.2Estimation
8.3Conclusions
8.4Spreadsheet model used for Monte Carlo simulations (overleaf)
9. ABBREVATIONS AND NOMECLATURE
APPENDIX B
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