Welcome to Scribd. Sign in or start your free trial to enjoy unlimited e-books, audiobooks & documents.Find out more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
13Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Technologies for Energy Use of Rice Straw: a review

Technologies for Energy Use of Rice Straw: a review

Ratings: (0)|Views: 895|Likes:
2008 Butchaiah Gadde, Christoph Menke, Werner Siemers, and Suneerat Pipatmanomai
2008 Butchaiah Gadde, Christoph Menke, Werner Siemers, and Suneerat Pipatmanomai

More info:

Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: International Rice Research Institute on Aug 02, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/13/2014

pdf

text

original

 
MINIREVIEW
Technologiesforenergyuseofricestraw:areview
ButchaiahGadde,ChristophMenke,WernerSiemers,andSuneeratPipatmancrnalTheJointGraduateSchoolofEnergyandEnvironment,KingMongkut'sUniversityofTechnology,Thonburi,Bangkok,Thailand
R
icestrawisamajorfield-basedresiduethatisproducedinlargeamountsinAsia.Infact,thetotalamountequaling668
t
couldproducetheoretically187gallonsofbioethanolifthetechnologywereavailable(KimandDale2004).However,anincreasingproportionofthisricestrawundergoesfieldburning.Thiswasteofenergyseemsinapt,giventhehighfuelpricesandthegreatdemandforreducinggreenhousegasemissionsaswellasairpollution.Asclimatechangeisextensivelyrecognizedasathreattodevelopment,thereisgrowinginterestinalternativeusesoffield-basedresiduesforenergyapplications.Incontrasttotheuseoffoodcrops(suchasmaize),theuseofagriculturalresiduesasbiofueloffersapotentialpathwayofrenewableenergythatavoidsrisksforfoodsecurity.Thereareprimarilytwotypesofresiduesfromricecultivationthathavepotential
in
termsofenergy-strawandhuskAlthoughthetechnologyofusingricehuskiswellestablishedinmanyAsiancountries,ricestrawis,asofnow,rarelyusedasasourceofrenewableenergy.Oneoftheprincipalreasonsforthepreferreduseofhuskisitseasyprocurement-thatis,
it
isavailableatthericemill.Inthecaseofricestraw,however,itscollectionislaboriousanditsavailabilityislimitedtoharvesttime.Thelogisticsofcollectioncouldbeimprovedthroughbaling,butthenecessaryequipmentisexpensiveandbuyingitisuneconomicalformostricefarmers.Thus,technologiesforenergyuse
 
ofstrawmustbeespeciallyefficienttocompensateforthehighcostsinvolvedinstrawcollection.Thisreviewaimstogiveanoverviewoftheavail-abletechnologiesforenergyapplicationsofricestraw,theirdevelopmentstatus,andtheproblemsencounteredintheiruse,
It
alsoprovidesanover-viewofricestrawqualityasthispropertyhasaninfluenceontechnologyefficiencies.
Rice
straw
quality
Thechemicalcompositionoffeedstockhasamajorinfluenceontheefficiencyofbioenergygeneration,Table1liststhechemicalpropertiesofricestraw,ricehusk,andwheatstrawtohighlightthepar-ticulardifferencesinfeedstock.Thelowfeedstockqualityofricestrawisprimarilydetermined
by
ahighashcontent
(10-17%)
ascomparedwithwhea
t
straw(around
3(%)
andalsohighsilicacontentinash(5i0
2
is
75%
inriceand
55%
in
wheat)(Zevenhoven
2(00).
Ontheotherhand,ricestrawasfeedstockhastheadvantageofhavingarelativelylowtotalalkalicontent(Na20andK20typicallycomprise
<15%
oftotalash),whereaswheatstrawcantypicallyhave
>25%
alkalicontentinash(Baxtereta11996).However,strawqualityvariessubstantiallywithinseasonsaswellaswithinregions,
If
strawisexposedtoprecipitationinthefield,alkaliandalkalinecompoundsareleached,improvingthefeedstockquality.Inturn,moisturecontentshouldbe
<10%
forcombustiontechnology,whichisthemostmaturetechnologyatthispoint(seebelow).Ricehuskalsohaspoorfeedstockquality,whichismainlycausedbytheveryhighsilicacontent(TableI),butitsadvantageistheuniformity
in
size.Thus,thepreferreduseofthismaterialforbioenergyisrelatedtobothqualityandavailability,
TableI.Proximatecompositionandselectedmajorelements
of
ashinricestraw,ricehusk,andwheatstraw.
Rice
Straw
Ricehusk
Wheat
so-;,w16,2217,7163.5275.2720,26702100.00100,,0091.4255.32
121
6,14<0.011.060,2,11.711712.5,60
Proximareanalys;s
(%
dry
fue
l)
Fixed
carbon
15,86
Volatile
matter
Ash
Total
65,4718.67100.00
Elemental
cornposttlonof
ash
(%)
SiO,
CaO
MgO
Na,OK,O
74.673.011.75
0.96
12,]0
Source,Jenkin,eral(1998).
Energytechnologies
Thetransportahanofbiomassisoneofthekeycos
t
factorsforitsuseasasourceofrenewableenergy.Decentralizedenergysystemsprovideanoppor-tunitytousebiomasstomeetlocalenergyrequire-ments=-thatis,heatandelectricity.
In
contrasttostraw,theuseofricehuskforenergyhasbeenreal-izedfaster,Oneimportantfactoristhatricemillscanusethehusktoservetheirinternalenergyrequire-mentAsanalternative,ricemillerscouldsellthehusktoapower-plan
t
operator.Thepropagationofricehuskuseforenergywasacceleratedbyenergyproviders,whodealwitharelativelysmallnum-berofricemillersforsupplyinghusk,whichisaneasiertaskthandealingwiththousandsoffarmerssupplyingricestraw,Asanewtrend,electricityisnowoftenproducedbythemillersthemselvesandthensoldtoapowergrid.Thissetuphastobeseenasthemostpromisingoptionintermsoflogisticsandtransportationenergysaved.Transportationcostsofstrawareamajorcon-strainttoitsuseasanenergysource,Asaruleofthumb,transportationdistancesbeyonda
25-50-
kmradius(dependingonlocalinfrastructure)areuneconomical.Forlongdistances,strawcouldbecompressedasbalesorbriquettes
in
thefield,ren-deringtransporttothesiteofuseaviableoption.Nevertheless,thelogisticsofasupplychainismorecomplicatedinthecaseofstraw.Althoughfivedifferentenergyconversiontechnologiesseemtobeapplicableforricestrawinprinciple(Fig,I),onlycombustiontechnologyiscurrentlyconunercializedandtheothertechnolo-giesareatdifferentstagesofdevelopment.Asageneralruleforenergyuse,eachstepinthechainconsumesacertainamountofenergyandthusreducesthenetenergyoftheendproduct.Thefollowingsectionsdescribetheprincipalfeaturesofthepossibleenergyconversiontechnolo-gies,experiences,andtechnicaldifficultiesintheuseofricestraw.
Thermalcombustion
Ricestrawcaneitherbeusedaloneormixedwithotherbiomassmaterials(thelatteriscalledco-fir-ingorco-combustion)indirectcombustion,Inthistechnology,combustionboilersareusedincombinationwithsteamturbinestoproduceelec-tricityandheat.Theenergycontentofricestrawisaround14MJkg~1atamoisturecontentof
10%
(EEF
2007).
Inthermalcombustion,airisinjectedintothecombustionchamber
to
ensurethatthebiomassiscompletelyburnedinthecombustionchamber.
 
Field-basedresidue-straw
Collection
Combustion
Fig.I.Energyconversiontechnologiesforricestraw.
Fluidizedbedtedmologyisoneofthedirectcombustiontechniques
in
whichsolidfuelisburnedinsuspensionbyforcedairsupplyintothecombus-tionchambertoachievecompletecombustion.Aproperair-to-fuelratioismaintainedand,intheabsenceofasufficientairsupply,boileroperationencountersvariousproblems.instrawcombustionathightemperatures,po-tassiumistransformedandcombineswithotheralkaliearthmaterialssuchascalcium.Thisinhunrea.ctswithsilicates,leadingtotheformationoftightlysintered
structures
onthegratesandatthefurnacewall.Alkaliea.rthsarealsoimportantintheformationofslagsanddeposits.Thismeansthatfuelswithloweralkalicontentarelessproblematicwhenfiredinaboiler(jenkinseta11998).Theby-productsareflyashandbottomash,whichhaveaneconomicvalueandcouldbeusedincementand/orbrickmanufacturing,constructionofroadsandembankments,etc.ExperienceswithexistingfacilitiesinIndia,China,andEuropearedescribedindetail
ill.
Annex
1.
Thefollowingisasummaryofthetechnicaldif-ficultiesandmeasuresadaptedtoovercometheseconstraints.
TransportingMandatoryintermediatestepR.awmaterialprocessing(mandatory)Energyconversion
I
technologiesIntermediaryenergyform
1.Thealkalicontentofstraw(bothwheatandrice)ishighandthesecompoundshavethetypicalcharacteristicofmeltingatcomparativelylowtemperaturesandformingalkalideposits(Milesetal1995).Themeasureadaptedistoincreasethemeltingpointofashthroughtheadditionoflimestone.Thisindirectlyreducessulfur(espe-ciallySQJemissionsaswell.2.Thehighalkalicontentofstrawathightem-peratureresultsinincreasedcorrosionandfoulingproblemsinthesuperheater(Barnes1999).Althoughthisproblemcannotbeavoidedcompletely,itsadverseeffectscanbemitigatedthroughcontrolledboilertemperatureandspe-cialcoatingonthesuperheatersurface.
In
ad-dition,asmentionedearlier,alkaliandalkalinecompounds
are
leachedwhenstrawisexposedtoprecipitation
in
thefield.Thisimprovesfeedstockqualitybyincreasingthemeltingtemperatureofash(JenkinsetaI1998).3.Thesilicacontentofricestrawashisaround
75
%,
whichhasalowmetingpoint.
In
additiontofeed-inglimestoneontothefurnacebed,controllingthetemperaturesinsidetheboilerisessentialtopreventthemeltingofsilicondioxide(Si0
2).

Activity (13)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
1 thousand reads
Victor Samuel liked this
Siau Djin Min liked this
srelibk liked this
Eslam Zakaria liked this
Sasa Brankov liked this
Matias Mancilla liked this
valentincondori liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->