especially lower ash and protein content, higher dye binding capacity. Depending on the requirement for anyapplication, the right chitosan with suitable purity isselected.Another product of this process is lipid-mineral-richcarotenorotein. This product was characterized for sensory values, protein, lipid, minerals contents andamino acid patterns. The results of various observationsare presented in Table 3 and 4.
. Characteristics of the lipid-rich carotenoproteinCharacteristicsColor ReddishSmell Shrimp powder Minerals content (%) 12.73 ± 1.6Protein content (%) 33.83 ± 2.3Lipid content (%) 31.07 ± 1.4Chitin content (%) 6.4 ± 1.2Carotenoid content (mg/kg) 886 ± 14
. Amino acid composition in the lipid-rich carotenoproteinAmino acids (mg/kg)Alanine 16207Glycine 16596Serine 5378Proline 9464Valine 7964Threonine 0.00Trans-4 hydroxy-L-proline 0.00Leucine-Isoleucine 11473Methionine 1164Phenylalanine 3323Arginine 0.00Aspartic acid 19306Glutamic acid 30453Tryptophan 253.5Cysteine 271.3Lysine 10104Histidine 1950Tyrosine 7388Cystine 0.00
The protein in the lipid-mineral-rich carotenoproteinhas good amino acid composition with high amount of glutamic acid (Table 4). Previous study also showed thatshrimp waste had high protein content with good aminoacid balance and glutamic acid was the abundant aminoacid in shrimp protein
. Besides, this carotenoid-proteincomplex can make carotenoid (mainly astaxanthin) morestable than the carotenoid alone
Chitosan and lipid-rich carotenoprotein with their well-known functional properties can be extracted fromshrimp heads which is available in large amount fromshrimp processing industry.
This research was supported by the InternationalFoundation for Science, Stockholm, Sweden and Ministryof Education and Training, Vietnam, through a researchgrant to Dr Trang Si Trung. The authors would like toextend their thanks to Mr. Nguyen Cong Minh and Ms. Nguyen Thi Nhu Thuong for supporting lab works.
Hirano, S. 1996. Chitin biotechnology application.Biotechnol. Annu. Rev. 2: 237-258.2.
Stevens, W. F. 1996. Chitosan: A key compound in biology and bioprocess technology. pp. 13-21.Stevens, W. F., Rao, M. S. and Chandrkrachang, S.,eds. Proceedings of 2nd Asia Pacific Symposium,Bangkok, Thailand.3.
Auerswald1, L. and Gäde, G. 2008. Simultaneousextraction of chitin and astaxanthin from waste of lobsters Jasus lalandii, and use of astaxanthin as anaquacultural feed additive. Afr. J. Mar. Sci. 30:35-44.4.
Armenta, R. E. and Guerrero-Legarreta, I. 2009.Stability studies on astaxanthin extracted fromfermented shrimp byproducts. J. Agric. Food Chem.57: 6095-6100.5.
Trung, T. S., Thein-Han, W. W., Qui, N. T., Ng, C.H. and Stevens, W. F. 2006. Functionalcharacteristics of shrimp chitosan and itsmembranes as affected by the degree of deacetylation. Bioresour. Technol. 97: 659-663.6.
Chakrabarti, R. 2002. Carotenoprotein from tropical brown shrimp shell waste by enzymatic process.Food Biotechnol. 16: 81-90.7.
FAO. 1986. FAO technical notes. Food andAgriculture Organization of The United Nations.8.
Rao, M.S., Nyein, K.A., Trung, T.S., Stevens, W.F.2007. Optimum parameters for production of Chitinand Chitosan from Squilla (
). Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 103, 3694-3700.9.
Tan, S. C., Khor, E., Tan, T. K., Wong, S. M. 1996.The degree of deacetylation of chitosan: advocatingthe first derivative UV spectrophotometry methodof determination. Talanta 45: 713-719.10.
Cho, Y. I., No, H. K., Meyers, S. P. 1998.Physico-chemical characteristics and functional properties of various commercial chitin andchitosan products. J. Agric. Food Chem. 46:3839-3843.11.
No, H. K., Lee, K. S. and Meyers, S. P. 2000.Correlation between physical chemicalcharacteristics and binding capacity of chitosan products. J. Food Sci. 65: 1134-1137.
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 20, Suppl. 1, 2012