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Unit 3---Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

Unit 3---Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties

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GLOBAL SCHOOL OF COMPETITIONS 2012
SUBJECT-Chemistry
UNIT:3---
CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS AND PERIODICITY IN PROPERTIES
Periodic table is a remarkable demonstration of the fact that the chemical elements are not arandom cluster of entities but instead display trends and lie together in families..
NEED TO CLASSIFY ELEMENTS
At present 114 elements are known.. With such a large number of elements it is very difficult tostudy individually the chemistry of all these elements and their innumerable compoundsindividually. To ease out this problem, scientists searched for a systematic way to organise their knowledge by classifying the elements.
GENESIS OF PERIODIC CLASSIFICATION
.
1. Dobereiner’s
 
Law of Triads
The German chemist, Johann Dobereiner in early 1800’s was the first to consider the idea of trends among properties of elements
 
According to this law there is a similarity among the physicaland chemical properties of several groups of three elements (
Triads
).. In each case, the middleelement of each of the
Triads
had an atomic weight about half way between the atomic weights of the other two (Table). Also the properties of the middleelement were in between those of the other two members.Table showing examples of Dobereiner’s Triads
Limitations of 
 
Dobereiner’s
 
Law of Triads
It works only for a few elements, it was dismissed as coincidence.
The Newland’s
 
Law of Octaves
 The English chemist, John Alexander Newlands in 1865 gave this law.--He arranged the elements in increasing order of their atomic weights and noted that every eighthelement had properties similar to the first element (Table). The relationship was just like everyeighth note that resembles the first in octaves of music. 
Limitations of 
 
Newlands’s Law
 This law is true only for elements up to calcium. Although his idea was not widely accepted at thattime, he, for his work, was later awarded Davy Medal in 1887 by the Royal Society, London, because he was the first person who gave the idea of periodicity that is used in modern periodictable also.
Russian chemist, Dmitri Mendeleev (1834-1907) and the German chemist, Lothar Meyer(1830-1895). Working independently, both the chemists in 1869 proposed that on arrangingelements in the increasing order of their atomic weights, similarities appear in physical andchemical properties at regular intervals. Lothar Meyer plotted the physical properties suchas atomic volume, melting point and boiling point against atomic weight .Mendeleev’s periodic law--
Created by:SH.C.P.VERMA Page 1Email: gblsc@gmail.comwebsite:http//www.gblsc.weebly.com
 
GLOBAL SCHOOL OF COMPETITIONS 2012
The properties of the elements are a periodic function of their atomic weights( Repetition of properties after a regular time interval is known as periodicity.)Structure of the
 
Mendeleev’s periodic table— 1.
He
 
arranged elements in horizontal rows and vertical columns of a table in order of their increasing atomic weights in such a way that the elements with similar properties occupied thesame
vertical column or group
.2. Horizontal rows are known as periods, and they further devided in to odd and even series.3. Groups were devided in to sub groups
Applications of 
 
Mendeleev’s periodic table
.— 1.Study of elements become very easy.2. Some of the elements did not fit in the scheme of classification if the order of atomic weight wasstrictly followed. He ignored the order and also correct the atomic weights. e.g, iodine with lower atomic weight than that of tellurium (Group VI) was placed in Group VII along with fluorine,chlorine, bromine because of similarities in properties3.
He forecasted about some undiscovered elements
. On the basis of properties of elements andtheir gradual difference he proposed that some of the elements were still undiscovered and, he leftseveral gaps in the table, e.g. both gallium and germanium were unknown at the time Mendeleev published his Periodic Table. He left the gap under aluminium and a gap under silicon, and calledthese elements
Eka-
 
Aluminium
and
Eka-Silicon.
Mendeleev predicted not only the existence of gallium and germanium, but also described some of their general physical properties. These elements were discovered later.
Table 3.3 Mendeleev’s Predictions for the Elements Eka-aluminium (Gallium) and Eka-silicon (Germanium)
.
Drawbacks of mendeleev’s periodic table— 
1.He could not justify the position of isotopes. i.e. different atomic positions but they havesame position in periodic table,
1
H
1
,
1
H
2
and
1
H
3
2.He could not justify the position of isobars, i.e. same atomic masses but elements havingdifferent positions in the periodic table, e.g.
20
Ca
40
and
19
39
.3.There is no position for f-block elements in the main body of periodic table.Position of hydrogen is controversial.
Note-
-We must bear in mind that when Mendeleev developed his
Periodic Table
, chemists knewnothing about the internal structure of atom.
MODERN PERIODIC LAW
In 1913, the English physicist,
Henry Moseley
modified.
Mendeleev’s Periodic Law
on the basis of his certain This is known as the
Modern Periodic Law
and can be stated as :
 
The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomicnumbers
 .
Note
--We know atomic number is equal to the nuclear charge (
i.e.
, number of protons) or thenumber of electrons in a neutral atom. It shows the significance of quantum numbers and electronicconfigurations in periodicity of elements..
THE
 
PRESENT FORM OF THE PERIODIC
 
TABLE or
long form
” of the
Periodic Table--
Created by:SH.C.P.VERMA Page 2Email:gblsc@gmail.comwebsite:http//www.gblsc.weebly.com
 
GLOBAL SCHOOL OF COMPETITIONS 2012
1.It has 7 horizontal rows are called
periods,
hence there are altogether seven periods.2.18 vertical columnsknown as
groups
. Elements having similar outer electronicconfigurations in their atoms are arranged in vertical columns, referred to as
groups
or 
families
. According toInternational Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups are numbered from 1 to18 replacing the older notation of groups IA … VIIA, VIII, IB … VIIB and 0.3.The period number corresponds to the highest principal quantum number (
n
) of the elements inthe period. The first period contains 2 elements. The subsequent periods consists of 8, 8, 18, 18 and32 elements, respectively. Theseventh period is incomplete and like the sixth period would have a theoretical maximum (on the basis of quantum numbers) of 32 elements.4. In this form of the Periodic Table, 14 elements of both sixth and seventh periods (lanthanoidsand actinoids, respectively) are placed in separate panels at the bottom*.Created by:SH.C.P.VERMA Page 3Email:gblsc@gmail.comwebsite:http//www.gblsc.weebly.com

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