GLOBAL SCHOOL OF COMPETITIONS 2012
The properties of the elements are a periodic function of their atomic weights( Repetition of properties after a regular time interval is known as periodicity.)Structure of the
Mendeleev’s periodic table— 1.
arranged elements in horizontal rows and vertical columns of a table in order of their increasing atomic weights in such a way that the elements with similar properties occupied thesame
vertical column or group
.2. Horizontal rows are known as periods, and they further devided in to odd and even series.3. Groups were devided in to sub groups
Mendeleev’s periodic table
.— 1.Study of elements become very easy.2. Some of the elements did not fit in the scheme of classification if the order of atomic weight wasstrictly followed. He ignored the order and also correct the atomic weights. e.g, iodine with lower atomic weight than that of tellurium (Group VI) was placed in Group VII along with fluorine,chlorine, bromine because of similarities in properties3.
He forecasted about some undiscovered elements
. On the basis of properties of elements andtheir gradual difference he proposed that some of the elements were still undiscovered and, he leftseveral gaps in the table, e.g. both gallium and germanium were unknown at the time Mendeleev published his Periodic Table. He left the gap under aluminium and a gap under silicon, and calledthese elements
Mendeleev predicted not only the existence of gallium and germanium, but also described some of their general physical properties. These elements were discovered later.
Table 3.3 Mendeleev’s Predictions for the Elements Eka-aluminium (Gallium) and Eka-silicon (Germanium)
Drawbacks of mendeleev’s periodic table—
1.He could not justify the position of isotopes. i.e. different atomic positions but they havesame position in periodic table,
2.He could not justify the position of isobars, i.e. same atomic masses but elements havingdifferent positions in the periodic table, e.g.
.3.There is no position for f-block elements in the main body of periodic table.Position of hydrogen is controversial.
-We must bear in mind that when Mendeleev developed his
, chemists knewnothing about the internal structure of atom.
MODERN PERIODIC LAW
In 1913, the English physicist,
Mendeleev’s Periodic Law
on the basis of his certain This is known as the
Modern Periodic Law
and can be stated as :
The physical and chemical properties of the elements are periodic functions of their atomicnumbers
--We know atomic number is equal to the nuclear charge (
, number of protons) or thenumber of electrons in a neutral atom. It shows the significance of quantum numbers and electronicconfigurations in periodicity of elements..
PRESENT FORM OF THE PERIODIC
” of the
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