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Effect of calcium silicate as a silicon source on growth and yield of rice in different acid soils of Karnataka, southern India

Effect of calcium silicate as a silicon source on growth and yield of rice in different acid soils of Karnataka, southern India

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IRRN 35 (2010) by N.B. Prakash, C. Narayanaswamy, T.H. Hanumantharaju, H.E. Shashidhar, S.U. Patil, G.N. Thippeshappa, and L.E. Datnoff
IRRN 35 (2010) by N.B. Prakash, C. Narayanaswamy, T.H. Hanumantharaju, H.E. Shashidhar, S.U. Patil, G.N. Thippeshappa, and L.E. Datnoff

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Published by: International Rice Research Institute on Aug 03, 2012
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01/01/2014

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Socioeconomics
2010
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185) 
 
1
Effect of calcium silicate as a silicon source ongrowth and yield of rice in different acid soils ofKarnataka, southern India
N.B. Prakash, C. Narayanaswamy, and T.H. Hanumantharaju, Department of Soil Science andAgricultural Chemistry; H.E. Shashidhar, Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Universityof Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore, India; S.U. Patil, Agricultural Research Station, Mangalore,Karnataka, India; G.N. Thippeshappa, College of Horticulture, Mudigere, India; and L.E. Datnoff,Department of Plant Pathology, Louisiana State University, USA
 
Silicon (Si) plays a significant role in imparting biotic and abiotic stress resistanceand enhancing crop productivity (Ma et al 1989). It is also crucial in preventingor minimizing lodging in cereal crops, a matter of great importance inagricultural productivity. Silicon is the only element known that does notdamage plants with excess accumulation. Rice is a high-Si-accumulator plant andthis element has been demonstrated to be necessary for healthy growth andstable production. For this reason, Si has been recognized as an “agronomicallyessential element” in Japan, and silicate fertilizers have since then been appliedto paddy soils (Ma et al 2001). In recent years, Si has been regarded as a quasiessential element (Epstein 1999). The depletion of plant-available Si in soilswhere rice is grown could be a possible limiting factor that contributes todeclining or stagnating yields (Savant et al 1997). Information on the importanceof Si in Indian rice farming systems is rather limited (Prakash 2002). Therefore,this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of varying levels of calciumsilicate (as a silicon source) and calcium carbonate on the growth and yield of rice grown in different soil types in Karnataka, southern India.Field experiments were conducted in the coastal zone soils of Mangaloreand the hilly zone soils of Mudigere and Ponnampet in Karnataka during 2006kharif. The texture of the soils at the experimental sites was sandy loam atPonnampet (pH 4.6) and Mangalore (pH 4.9), and clay loam at Mudigere (pH4.7). Calcium carbonate (commercial-grade CaCO
3
, 28% CaO) was applied basedon calcium oxide equivalent to that supplied by calcium silicate (Excell Minerals,USA, 12% Si) treatments. The experiments were arranged in a randomizedcomplete block design with seven treatments (T1: NPK only, T2: T1 + 2 t calciumsilicate ha
–1
, T3: T1 + 3 t calcium silicate ha
–1
, T4: T1+ 4 t calcium silicate ha
–1
, T5:T1 + 2 t CaCO
3
ha
–1
, T6: T1 + 3 t CaCO
3
ha
–1
, and T7: T1 + 4 t CaCO
3
ha
–1
) and
 
 
Socioeconomics
2010
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185) 
 
2three replications. Three-week-old seedlings were planted at 20 × 10-cm spacingin a treatment plot size of 16 m
2
. The recommended P (as SSP) and K (as muriateof potash) were applied during planting, whereas calcium silicate and CaCO
3
 were applied 1 wk before planting. The recommended split application of N(urea) was done for all treatments. The cultivars used in this study wereIET13901 (Mudigere and Ponnampet) and MO-4 (Mangalore). Grain and strawyields were calculated on a per-hectare basis following standard procedures(14% moisture content). The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (SASInstitute 1990).Grain yields increased significantly with the application of graded levelsof calcium silicate in all study locations (Table 1). The highest grain yield wasobserved in soils treated with 4 t calcium silicate ha
–1
(T4) at Ponnampet andMangalore. At Mudigere, the highest grain yield was noted in T3 (3 t calciumsilicate ha
–1
). No significant yield increases were observed with the application of graded levels of CaCO
3
and most were similar to the control (Table 1). Grainyield increased up to 14.9% at Mudigere (3 t calcium silicate ha
–1
) and 38% and32.7% at Ponnampet and Mangalore, respectively (4 t calcium silicate ha
–1
). Anincrease in rice yield under flooded conditions was also noticed with Sifertilization in Sri Lanka (Takijima et al 1970) and India (Singh et al 2006). Snyderet al (1986) showed that application of calcium silicate increased rice yields inHistosols, mainly due to the supply of plant-available Si and not of any othernutrients. The effect of Si on decreasing disease incidence unquestionablycontributes to increased yields, but Si has also been shown to increase yield inthe absence of a disease (Datnoff et al 1992). The increase in grain yield might bedue to more efficient use of solar radiation, moisture, and nutrients since Simakes the rice plant more erect (Rani et al 1997).
 
 
Socioeconomics
2010
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185) 
 
3
Effect of calcium silicate as a source of Si on grain and straw yield (kg ha
 –1
) of rice.
Coastal zone Hilly zoneMangalore Mudigere PonnampetTreatmentGrain Straw Grain Straw Grain StrawT1: Control 4,146.7 6,259.8 5,783.2 8,158.0 4,102.3 6,800.7T2: Calcium silicate @2 t ha
 –1
4,955.3 7,121.2 6,232.6 7,777.8 4,756.6 7,460.3T3: Calcium silicate @3 t ha
 –1
5,132.4 7,389.0 6,647.5 8,037.0 5,049.4 8,606.7T4: Calcium silicate @4 t ha
 –1
5,502.6 7,006.1 6,571.4 8,019.8 5,661.4 8,701.9T5: CaCO
3
@ 2 t ha
 –1
4,405.6 6,172.8 5,862.7 7,950.6 4,148.2 7,072.3T6: CaCO
3
@ 3 t ha
 –1
4,637.0 6,568.5 5,752.1 6,879.0 4,137.6 7,407.4T7: CaCO
3
@ 4 t ha
 –1
4,488.0 6,599.3 5,817.8 7,829.6 4,268.1 7,569.6SEM± 136.0 901.1 179.1 514.5 164.5 231.9LSD (
P  
= 0.05%) 419.1 2712.3 551.9 1585.4 506.9 714.7
Although straw yield also increased with the application of calciumsilicate at both Mangalore and Ponnampet locations, a significant increase wasobserved only in Ponnampet soils. The greater dry matter production with Siapplication may be due to the greater area for photosynthesis, which results inmore enhanced photosynthetic activity in comparison with CaCO
3
treatmentsand the control (Rani et al 1997). Agarie et al (1992) also reported thatmaintenance of photosynthetic activity due to Si fertilization could be one of thereasons for increased dry matter production.Overall, using calcium silicate (3 and 4 t ha–1) as an Si source resulted in asignificant increase in grain yield over the control treatment (NPK only) and overtreatments that applied CaCO
3
in the acid soils of Karnataka, southern India.These studies demonstrate the importance of Si in maximizing the yield potentialof rice. Further research needs to be conducted throughout all rice-growingregions of India.
 
References
Agarie S, Dgata W, Kubota H, Kaufmann PS. 1992. Physiological role of silicon in photosyntheticand dry matter production in rice plant. J. Crop Sci. 61:200-208.Datnoff LE, Snyder GH, Deren CW. 1992. Influence of silicon fertilizer grade on blast and brownspot development and on rice yields. Plant Dis. 76:1182-1184.

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