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AB MicroLogix Training Manual

AB MicroLogix Training Manual

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Published by: Tetsusaiga on Aug 03, 2012
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   K  e  y   P  o   i  n   t  s
To understand the Allen-Bradley MicroLogix 1000, you need to startwith the basics. This first module explains the basic operation ofprogrammable controllers and details the specific features of theMicroLogix 1000 PLC.This first module is broken up into four sections:1.MicroLogix 1000 basic principles of operation2.MicroLogix specifications3.I/O structure and memory system4.Addressing notation
After finishing this module, you will:
understand the basic operating principles of the MicroLogix—how it works, what the components are, and what thecomponents do
know the three basic specifications for the MicroLogix 1000—how the program is written, how data is represented in thesystem, and what configurations are available
grasp the MicroLogix’s intricate memory system—how theI/O is set up, what makes up the memory system, and how thememory system is organized
understand the unique MicroLogix addressing notation
Architecture and Operation2
Module 1
1-1 MicroLogix 1000 Basic Principles of Operation
The MicroLogix 1000 programmable logic controller may ap-pear to be like any other PLC, but it has special features, speci-fications, and capabilities that make it a unique tool for imple-menting process or machine control. The MicroLogix 1000 fol-lows many of the same basic principles of operation that allPLCs follow. At the end of this section, you will know:what PLCs dowhy PLCs are invaluable to industrial facilitieswhat makes up a PLChow a PLC operates
PLC Fundamentals
A MicroLogix 1000 is a
programmable logic controller
anindustrial computer that controls a machine or process. A PLCinterfaces with the field input and output devices that are part of a control application. Then, through the control program storedin its memory, the PLC uses the data supplied by the inputdevices to manipulate or control the output devices. The overallPLC process, which is shown in Figure 1-1, is very simple. APLC
measures or senses signals coming from a machine or pro-cess. Then, through its internal program, the PLC provides con-trol back to the machine or process.Programmable logic controllers provide many benefits over tra-ditional electromechanical control systems. One of the best ben-efits is that PLCs make it easier and less costly to change acontrol system. They eliminate the need to rewire the input andoutput devices if the control requirements change. If the controlrequirements for a PLC application change, all you need to do is
Figure 1-1.
PLC operation.
M easur esC o nt r o lIn p u t sO u t p u t sM icr o Lo gix1 0 0 0ProcessorM achine
Architecture and Operation
Module 1
change the control program. Another benefit of PLCs is thatthey are more powerful and more accurate than electromechani-cal systems.
PLC Components
A PLC is made up of two basic components (see Figure 1-2):the input/output (I/O) systemthe central processing unit (CPU)The
input/output system
is the part of the PLC that physicallyconnects to devices in the outside world. The
central process-ing unit
, on the other hand, is where the PLC stores all of itsdata and does all of its computer processing. Each of the com-ponents of a PLC has specific functions.
Input/Output System.
The input/output system is made up of two components, the input interface and the output interface(see Figure 1-3).An
input interface
is a bank of terminals that physically con-nects input devices, like push buttons and limit switches, to aPLC. These input devices provide data to the PLC. The role of an input interface is to translate data from the inputs into a formthat the PLC’s central processing unit can understand.An
output interface
is a bank of terminals that physically con-nects output devices, such as solenoids and motor starters, to aPLC. These output devices receive control data from a PLC. Therole of an output interface is to translate data from the PLC’sCPU into a form that the output devices can understand.To put it simply, the I/O system communicates information fromthe input devices to the CPU. It also communicates data fromthe CPU to the output devices.
Figure 1-2.
A PLC and its components: the central processing unit (CPU) and theinput/output (I/O) system.
Figure 1-3.(a)
A PLC’s input interface interprets the data from the input devicesand then sends it to the CPU.
A PLC’s output interface interpretsthe data from the CPU and sends it to the output devices.
PLCI/O Syst emC PUInputsOutputsInputsTo PLCOutputsFrom PLCM

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