The frames containing honey to be extracted are removed from the hive, the cappings cut off with asharp, warm knife (fig. 21) made specially for this purpose, and the frames are then put into the basketsof the honey extractor (fig. 22). By revolving these rapidly the honey thrown out of one side. The basket isthen reversed and the honey from the other side is removed. The combs can then be returned to the beesto be refilled, or if the honey flow is over, they can be returned to the bees to be cleaned and thenremoved and stored until needed again. This method is much to be preferred to mashing the comb andstraining out the honey, as was formerly done.In large apiaries special boxes to receive cappings, capping melters to render the cappings directly intowax, and power-driven extractors are often used. These will be found listed in supply catalogues.The extracted honey is then strained and run into vessels. It is advisable not to put it in bottles at once,but to let it settle in open vessels for a time, so that it can be skimmed. Most honeys will granulate andbecome quite hard if exposed to changes of temperature, and to liquefy granulated extracted honey itshould be heated in a water bath. Never heat honey directly over a stove or flame, as the flavor is therebyinjured. The honey should never be heated higher than 160°F. unless it is necessary to sterilize itbecause of contami. nation by disease.
Extracted honey is put up in bottles or small tin cans for the retail trade, and in 5-gallon square tin cans orbarrels for the wholesale market. Great care must be exercised if barrels are used, as honey will absorbmoisture from the wood, if any is present, and cause leakage. The tin package is much to be preferred inmost cases. In bottling honey for retail trade, it will well repay the bee keeper or bottler to go toconsiderable expense and trouble to make an attractive package, as the increased price received will
more than compensate for the increased labor and expense. Honey should be heated to 160°F. and keptthere for a time before bottling, and the bottle should be filled as full as possible and sealed hermetically.Granulated honey.
Some honeys, such as alfalfa, granulate quickly after being extracted. Such honeysare sometimes allowed to granulate in large cans and the semisolid mass is then cut into 1-pound brickslike a butter print and wrapped in paraffin paper. It may be put into paraffined receptacles beforegranulation, if desired. There is always a ready market for granulated honey, since many people prefer itto the liquid honey.COMB HONEYComb honey is honey as stored in the comb by the bees, the size and shape being determined by thesmall wooden sections provided by the bee keeper. Instead of having comb in large frames in which tostore surplus honey, the bees are compelled to build comb in the sections and to store honey there (fig.2). A full section weighs about 1 pound; larger ones are rarely used. By the use of modern sections andfoundation the comb honey now produced is a truly beautiful, very uniform product, so uniform in fact thatit is often charged that it must be artificially manufactured. The purchaser of a section of comb honey maybe absolutely certain, however, that he is obtaining a product of the bees, for never has anyone been ableto imitate the bees' work successfully. To show their confidence in the purity of comb honey, the NationalBee Keepers' Association offers $1,000 for a single pound of artificial comb filled with an artificiallyprepared sirup, which is at all difficult of detection.There are several different styles of sections now in use, the usual sizes being 4 1/4 inches square and 4by 5 inches. There are also two methods of spacing, so that there will be room for the passage of beesfrom the brood chamber into the sections and from one super of sections to another. This is done eitherby cutting "bee ways" in the sections and using plain flat separators or by using "no bee-way" or plainsections and using " fences "
separators with cleats fastened on each side, to provide the bee space. Todescribe all the different "supers" or bodies for holding sections would be impossible in a bulletin of thissize, and the reader must be referred to catalogues of dealers in bee keeping supplies. Instead of using
regular comb-honey supers, some bee keepers use wide frames to hold two tiers of sections. It is better,however, to have the supers smaller, so that the bees may be crowded more to produce full sections. To