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Why Use Differentiation

Why Use Differentiation



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Published by MrColey

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: MrColey on Jan 13, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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know a lot about differentiation.I have practiced it for morethan 30 years at the primary,middle school,high school,anduniversity levels.I know the vocabulary of it and the researchbehind it.I have studied teachers who dif-ferentiate instruction and teachers who donot.Yet the most compelling answer Ihave for why differentiation matters in themiddle grades is my own experience as a young adolescent.It is that experiencethat makes me “feel”why differentiationmatters vs.“knowing”why it should be worth the trouble.I was a prototype young adolescent—growing too fast,resentful of a too-tallbody,awkward,and certain that everyone was looking at me all the time (except when I was sure they wouldn’t notice if Ifell off the face of the earth).To say I hada fragile sense of self is way too generous.In that nerve-exposed time of life,Iencountered two teachers whose impact onme extended beyond the year they taughtme—even until today.It would be correctto say that one of them taught math,theother taught me English.There is a subtlebut pivotally important difference in the way those clauses are written.Ironically—or perhaps not—I cannotrecall the math teacher’s name,although Ihave a clear image of her standing at theblackboard,raging through the math text.She was a serious math teacher.She cov-ered math with a single-mindedness that was evident even to seventh graders.Sheexplained the math in one way and one way only.She taught each topic one time
Why Bother?
By Carol Ann Tomlinson
Volume 9, Number 1
had a spiral notebook in which I copiedlines from books that seemed lovely orimportant or funny to me.I didn’t under-stand that I was developing a love affair with language,but he understood.Many times during that year,he gave me person-al projects that involved using or adding tothe notebook.He saw that I needed tolearn at a different pace and even in differ-ent directions than did some of my peersin his class—and he saw to it that my needs were a part of his plans,as were theneeds of my various classmates.I found young adolescent hope in literature and writing in the same way that math cameto confound my young adolescent despair.I’d like to say that the dehumanizingexperience was offset by a humanizingone.But the scales don’t balance so easily. The sense of stupidity I developed in mathcould not be cancelled out so easily.I con-cluded that Mr.Arnold was a little stupid,too.He seemed to think I could do some-thing worthwhile—so clearly he didn’tknow the real me.It took years to undo what that math class did and some of ithas not yet gone away.I don’t think anyone used the word“differentiation”in those days,but they could have.At the time in my life when I was seeking identity like a drowning manseeks air,a one-size-fits-all approach tomath proved to me daily that I was a loser.A much more student-focused and per-sonalized English class planted the seedfor a possible future,even though I couldnot see it at the time.
Reason To Bother
Despite the damage,I was lucky.I hadsome history of school success.I had par-ents who valued education.I had a few good friends. What if I had had a learning disabili-ty or had been learning to speak English
August 2005
Middle Ground
and one time only.She used one form of assessment and one form only.She knew math,but she didn’t know about me at all. That I understood virtually nothingshe was talking about was either off herradar or beyond the parameters of herinterest.She kept going.I got more pro-foundly lost—more profoundly desperate.My sense of hopelessness was compound-ed by the fact that a good number of my friends seemed to be hanging on to vari-ous degrees while I sank by the day.One way of looking at the mathepisode is simply to say I didn’t do wellthat year.In truth,my grade was the leastof my problems.My uncertainty aboutmyself grew in direct proportion to themath fog that collected around me day by day.Not only did I become a seventhgrader who “couldn’t do math”(despite sixprior years of success in math),but Iremain to this day a person who regardsall things mathematical with a feeling inmy stomach that takes me directly back tothe worst aspects of early adolescence.I do remember my English teacher’sname.He was Mr.Arnold.He was a fair-ly new teacher and,as teachers go,wasn’t very good yet.He was not strong in eitherthe charisma or the classroom manage-ment categories.But he worked hard toknow us as individual students and tomake the class work for us as individualstudents.He met during class with smallgroups of students who needed help withan assignment.He connected our variousinterests and personality traits to literature we read.He picked out books for individ-uals’book reports,dignifying us with thatbit of personal attention.He gave carefulthought to student groupings and told us what he thought would make the class work for us.Mr.Arnold somehow learned that I
“Our success as teachers in helping students see themselves ascompetent in the subjects we teach will affect the rest of their lives.”
or had never learned to read confidently or had had only one parent who lackedthe financial means to care for me or hadhad to grapple with racial identity—or ahundred other possibilities that come tomiddle school on the shoulders of a largenumber of students every day?Here is the real reason it’s worth thebother to differentiate instruction in themiddle grades.Our success as teachers inhelping students see themselves as com-petent in the subjects we teach will affectthe rest of their lives.Middle school students are perhapsthe most developmentally varied group of learners in our education systems.Notonly do they represent all the forms of diversity that exist in general,but they represent a huge range of physical,social,emotional,and mental immaturities andmaturities.The students are in search of themselves,and they are often,if notalways,fragile and uncertain in at leastsome dimensions.Clearly,young adolescents need todevelop what we call self-esteem and thusthey need adults who find them blatantly  worthwhile.In truth,however,they can-not succeed unless they also repeatedly encounter self-efficacy.A sense of self- worth in the absence of a sense of competence cannot endure.And so,we have to teach whatever we teach so that kids who struggle with itemerge with its important understand-ings and skills in their grasp.We alsohave to teach whatever we teach so thatstudents who grasp it with uncanny speedcan experience and surmount personalchallenge.Self-efficacy is born only whenany student encounters something thatstudent believes to be out of reach,only to find that he or she had what it took toovercome what seemed impossible.Inthat way,motivation to learn flourishes,persistence is a price worth paying,andan uncertain kid becomes a real student. We have to teach whatever we teachso that each student feels known,valued,and supported.The alternative is not only 
Volume 9, Number 1

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