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Computability and Logic Maravilhoso

Computability and Logic Maravilhoso

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Mathematical LogicandComputability
J. Keisler, K. Kunen, T. Millar, A. Miller, J. RobbinFebruary 10, 2006
This version is from Spring 19870
 
Contents
1 Propositional Logic 5
1.1 Syntax of Propositional Logic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81.2 Semantics of Propositional Logic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101.3 Truth Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.4 Induction on formulas and unique readability . . . . . . . . . . 141.5 Tableaus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171.6 Soundness and Confutation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211.7 Completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231.8 Computer Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291.9 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
2 Pure Predicate Logic 37
2.1 Syntax of Predicate Logic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 402.2 Free and Bound Variables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422.3 Semantics of Predicate Logic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442.4 A simpler notation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 492.5 Tableaus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512.6 Soundness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 552.7 Completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 562.8 Computer problem using PREDCALC . . . . . . . . . . . . . 602.9 Computer problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612.10 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
3 Full Predicate Logic 68
3.1 Semantics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 703.2 Tableaus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723.3 Soundness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 753.4 Completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 763.5 Peano Arithmetic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 793.6 Computer problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 803.7 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
4 Computable Functions 87
4.1 Numerical Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874.2 Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 871
 
4.3 Extension. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 894.4 Numerical Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904.5 The Unlimited Register Machine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 904.6 Examples of URM-Computable Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . 924.7 Universal URM machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1094.8 Extract and Put . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1154.9 UNIV.GN commented listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1214.10 Primitive Recursion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1264.11 Recursive functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1284.12 The URM-Computable Functions are recursive. . . . . . . . . 1324.13 Decidable Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1384.14 Partial decidability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1384.15 The Diagonal Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1384.16 The Halting Problem. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1404.17 The odel Incompleteness Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1404.18 The Undecidability of Predicate Logic. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1424.19 Computer problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1434.20 Computer problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1434.21 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
5 Mathematical Lingo 149
5.1 Sets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1495.2 Functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1525.3 Inverses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1545.4 Cartesian Product. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1585.5 Set theoretic operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1605.6 Finite Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1635.7 Equivalence Relations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1645.8 Induction on the Natural Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
6 Computer program documentation 169
6.1 TABLEAU program documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1696.2 COMPLETE program documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1796.3 PREDCALC program documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1796.4 BUILD program documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1866.5 MODEL program documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1896.6 GNUMBER program documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1902

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