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05-46 Blocking Die Impression Shape Design for Web

05-46 Blocking Die Impression Shape Design for Web

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Published by Lungani Sibindi

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Published by: Lungani Sibindi on Aug 03, 2012
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 Mária KAPUSTOVÁMiroslava KOŠ
The aim of the paper is focus on the importanceof simulation software for material flow monitoring in theimpression of die. The simulation proves to detect the possible mistakes of material flow. It is possible byadjusting of tool geometry to eliminate mistakes in preliminary phase of forged production, what presents production costs savings. Using of simulation softwarehas big importance for successful development of newunconventional technologies in production praxis,because essentially reduces economical severity of  proving processes.
 Key words
: closed die forging, simulation, blockingimpression of die, finite volume method 
Computer technique in forming area allows to apply in allstages of production processes designing in forming, suchalso at production of forged pieces. The present marketoffers relative high quality simulation programs, whathave wide application in verification of technologicalmethod accuracy. They become quickly integral memberof design and all development process, because theyprovide in relatively short time to obtain optimalalternative of production and so to eliminate economicallyand time demanding experiments. The advantage of technological process simulation is realization of experiments out of real object, without real incidence tothe production operations.
Dynamical improvement of operating production andcompetitiveness of our die forges may assure onlyprecision die forging methods, which represent lucrativeproduction of forged parts. They are source of higherquality of final product, what achieves by the method of lower material and energy consumption. In term of material savings is interested closed die forgingtechnology without flash space, what however requires toput right technological parameters of forge. The quality,performance and life of die are the most decisive criteriaof the design, optimization and application of closed dieforging for the prediction of forged pieces and therefore itis needed to determine impression shape of tool.In loading of precision die forging method intoproduction praxis has big consequence computersimulation of technological process, which enables tounderstand forging process and plastic flow of material indie impression during its filling. So that are very quicklydiagnostic mistakes of bad flow, or not filling places indie impression, whether big flash, what signalizesabnormal consumption of material. Simulation softwareallows to optimization dimensions of billet, shape of forging blank, whether final shape of tool impression andso eliminate mistakes in prepare phase of production.For process simulation of die forging were developeddifferent simulation programs such DEFORM, FORM2D,QFORM3D,FORGE3,MSC.SuperForge,MSC.SuperFormand others, they use final element method (FEM), what isbased on dividing of forming volume for finite final of simple geometrical shapes, eventually programs use finitevolume method (FVM), where is calculated material flowby help of constant volume elements and there is notneeded remeshing. The process of forging is highly non-linear, for forging process is typically big materialtransfer and therefore has FVM method application in 3Dsimulation of forging.
3.1 Raw material
Die forged Wheel has simple rotate shape, it is hollow, ithas punched hole. It uses such gear wheel in gearboxesfor agriculture and industry machines. Raw material forforged is bar round section with diameter
65 of steel16NiCr4 with strength 830MPa. It is usually deliveredwithout heat treatment, soft annealed and normalizing. Itis dedicated for cementing and has good hot formabilityand good workability. It uses for very stressed mechanicalcomponents with cemented surface and higher strengthand toughness in nucleus, for example gear wheels of gearboxes, spine shafts, wheels of differentials, especiallystressed shanks, shafts of driving gears and so similar.
Chemical composition of steel 16NiCr4 is in table1.
Tab.1 Chemical composition of steel 16NiCr4 (wt.%)
chemical composition (wt.%)
Contentsof elements
C Mn Si P S
0,13 0,7
0,19 1,00,40,03 0,03
Cr NiMoAl Ti
0,6 0,8 0,0216NiCr4
1,0 1,100,10,040,01
Technological process of forged production
Required forged shape Wheel is obtained by closed dieforging. Closed die forging appertains into advancedtechnology of forging, which make possible to produceforged parts with high precision of dimensions andsurface quality. There is required precision volume of blank and precision dividing of material in blockingoperations. Closed die forging has these main advantages:
decrease material consumption about 15 until25%, that is weight of flash
decrease of forging forces about 30 until 40%,because there is diminished surface of forgedabout surface of land
possibility of cant decreasing until zero withusing of ejector
possibility of fillet radius decreasing
to achieve higher accuracy of forged,
it does not rise displacement of forgedDisadvantages of forging in closed die are heat inprotective atmosphere, eventually using of inductionheat, that minimal the scales. It is no possible to appliedthis method of forging for all shapes of forged parts,eventually it is needed shape modification. By closed dieforging technology is no possible to forge on optionaldevices. In term of forging technology without flash isvery important correct choice of type and compensatorlocation of little material overflow in impression of closed die. For round shape of die forged Wheel wassuggested redundant material compensation method intointernal flash. It is necessary to order bars with higherprecision, eventually sizing them on own devices. Atforging in closed die is required precision dividing of material. For dividing of material is suitable saw of typeIndividual 510.330 GA, what make possible higherquality of cutting shape. Round shape bars Ø 65 isneeded to cut for stock with weight batch 2,68 ± 0,03kg,informative length of stock is 103 mm.For production of round shape forged was suggestedforging press type LZK2500 and forging process consistsof three stages:
to heat billet on upper forging temperature1150°C
upset billet into height 40mm
to block the shape in blocking die impression
to finish forged shape in impression of closed dieTechnological forging process of forged Wheel is inFig.1. Final shape of forged is possible to obtain afterpunching of wad, what represent technologically neededscrap. Neat weight of forged is 2,54 kg.
Fig.1 Model of die forging WHEEL a –shape of forged  piece with wad and conical compensator, b –forged pieceafter punching of wad, c –shape of final forged piece
Software MSC. SuperForge appertains into CAE systems,what are dedicated for computer simulation of 2D and 3Dprocesses of die forging with using of method FEM orFVM. It is modern simulation software with easyattendance, which makes possible import CAD geometryin STL format. The simulation of processes of hotforming employ elastic-plastic model of material flow.The big software advantage is large material database,which is created with consideration upon dependence of material hardening, temperature and deformation velocity.In preliminary stage the simulation requires to defineprocess of die forging, to insert model of tool, to choosematerial from database and forming machine, choicefriction and temperature conditions for billet and tool.Output effect of this program is tracing all behavior of plastic material flow in die impression, deformation meshin forming. The simulation software enables colordisplay of flow velocity of material, values of strains,values of stresses in forming material and contact pressesof tool surface on the end of simulation and backwardduring all behavior of forging too. This software was usedin forging simulation of die forged Wheel.The mainly simulation setting of forged productionsimulation process:
hot forging in closed die
choice of FVM method
insert 3D model of blocking die
choice of machine: mechanical press LZK 2500
material of billet: DIN 1.7131
material of die: steel H13
billet temperature: 1150°C
die temperature: 250°C
friction coefficient: 0.25After billet upsetting was monitored behavior of materialin blocking die impression. It was simulated variousoptions of blocking impression modification. At optionswith placing of wad in low side of die, the simulationpredicted creation of lap and it was necessary to approachto modification impression shape of blocking die. On theFig.2 and Fig. 3(a) is presented incorrect material flowduring material filling of die impression.In Fig. 3(b) is traced lap, what was created during forgingsimulation. In figure is the lap placed in lower part of forging blank.
Fig.2 Incorrect material flow during forging in closed blocking die
 In Fig.4 is presented incorrect shape of forging blank withlap.The designing of blocking impression shape modificationaffords to visual change of forging blank shape. The wadwas placed into the middle of die impression, the nose of punch was fillet with radius R4. The impression of diewas correctly filled and the lap did not form. It wasobtained by simulation forging blank shape withoutdefects.In Fig. 5 is presented correct filling of die impression, itwas used modified geometry of tool.In Fig.6 is presented correct shape of forging blankwithout defects. The output effect from simulation wasacquirement apart from view of material flow also colourpresentation of material velocity, values of strains, valuesof stresses in forming material. The values of stress of forging blank are presented in Fig.7. The values andbehavior of effective plastic strain are presented in Fig. 8Model of blocking die created by software CATIA andimported into simulation program is in Fig. 9. The modelis presented in section.The consequence and main reason of using of numericalprocess in proposition of forging method is developmentof adequate tool and verification of parameters by help of process simulation.Practical using of this method is possible to summarize:
following of impression tool filling(a) (b)
Fig.3 Incorrect material flow during forginga) the end of simulation b) tracing of lapFig.4 Incorrect shape of forging blank Fig.5 Correct material flow during forging in closed blocking dieFig.6 Correct shape of forging blank Fig.7 Effective stress of forging blank Fig.8 Effective plastic strain of forging blank 
Fig.9 Model of blocking die

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