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An Iona of the East: the Early-Medieval Monastery at Portmahomack, Tarbat Ness

An Iona of the East: the Early-Medieval Monastery at Portmahomack, Tarbat Ness

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"An Iona of the East: the Early-Medieval Monastery at Portmahomack, Tarbat Ness" by Martin Carver, appearing in Medieval Archaeology 48 (2004)
"An Iona of the East: the Early-Medieval Monastery at Portmahomack, Tarbat Ness" by Martin Carver, appearing in Medieval Archaeology 48 (2004)

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Categories:Types, Research, History
Published by: oldenglishblog on Aug 04, 2012
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11/29/2012

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   P  u   b   l   i  s   h  e   d   b  y   M  a  n  e  y   P  u   b   l   i  s   h   i  n  g   (  c   )   S  o  c   i  e   t  y   f  o  r   M  e   d   i  e  v  a   l   A  r  c   h  a  e  o   l  o  g  y
 An Iona of the East: The Early-medievalMonastery at Portmahomack, Tarbat Ness
 By
MARTIN CARVER
 A NEW research programme located on the Tarbat peninsula in north-east Scotland o
  V  
ers the first large-scale exposure of a monastery in the land of the Picts. A case is argued that the settlement at Portmahomack was founded in the 
th century, possibly by Columba himself, and by the 
8
thcentury had developed into an important political and industrial centre comparable with Iona.Signs of the monastery’s former prominence survive in workshops producing liturgical objects, possibly including books, and in the brilliant art of the Tarbat cross-slabs at Portmahomack, Nigg, Shandwick and Hilton of Cadboll. The monastic institution, which had contacts with Northumbria and beyond, seems to have been expunged by th
11
th century, probably in the context of political struggles between Scandinavian, Pictish and Scottish interests.
The Tarbat Peninsula, which juts out into the Moray Firth (NE. Scotland), hasbeen under intensive archaeological investigation since
1994
.
1
Although thefieldwork programme is not yet complete, it is now plausible to propose that thepeninsula was the site of an Early-medieval monastic estate, complementary inmany particulars to the island of Iona on the other side of Scotland. The focus of theinvestigationistheearlyecclesiasticalcentreatPortmahomack,hithertounseenalthough occasionally anticipated.
2
The new excavations have shown that aChristian mission was established there by the later
6
th century, had grown tointernationalstatusby
800
,andshortlyafterwardswaspartlydestroyedandlargely
1
See Bulletin of the Tarbat Discovery Programme
1
 –
7
(
1995
 –
2002
) posted at
http//
::
  york.ac.uk/dept/arch/sta
  V  
/sites/tarbat 
, cited henceforward as
Bulletin
. At the time of writing (
2003
) the excavation campaign is due to finish in
2007
.
2
The crypt at Portmahomack was assigned to a chapel of St Columba by Cosmo Innes, W. Anderson, J. Robertson, J. Brichan and J. McNab,
Origines Parochiales Scotiae 
:
The Antiquities Ecclesiastical and Territorial of the Parishes of Scotland 
(
2
vols.),
2
:
2
(Edinburgh,
1851
 –
55
),
434
. Julian Brown made a case for a Pictish provenance forthe Book of Kells, with Tarbat as a possible centre of production: ‘One or more court monasteries or churchesmust have existed among the Picts; and if we cannot say where they were, the groups of stones from St Andrews,Meigle, Aberlemno, St Vigeans and the Tarbat-Nigg area . . . show what sort of work they were able to do. ThePictish cross-slabs make just as good a monumental background for the [Book of Kells] as the crosses of Northumbria or Iona’: Julian T. Brown, ‘Northumbria and the Book of Kells’,
Anglo-Saxon England 
,
1
(
1972
),
219
 –
46
, at p.
241
. Isabel Henderson has long been an advocate for a monastery at the Tarbat site: ‘The slabs inEaster Ross certainly suggestthat this district supported at least one importantecclesiastical foundation — perhapsat Tarbat, where there are fragments of a number of particularly fine cross-slabs’: I. H. Henderson, ‘Inverness, aPictish capital’,
91
 –
108
in Loraine Maclean of Dochrarroch (ed.),
The Hub of the Highlands 
:
The Book of Inverness and  District 
(Edinburgh,
1975
),
106
. John Higgitt anticipated a monastic scriptorium: ‘At Tarbat or somewhere veryclose by was an ecclesiastical centre with contacts that went beyond Pictland . . . This centre was capable of producing books’: J. Higgitt, ‘The Pictish Latin inscription at Tarbat in Ross-shire’,
Proc. Soc. Antiq. Scotland 
,
112
(
1982
),
300
 –
21
. All these judgements are strongly endorsed by the present campaign (see below).
1
DOI:
10
.
1179
/
007660904225022780
 
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martin carver2
      a        b d      c
     f     i     g
 .
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     1     9       8     4
 .    S   t    C   o    l   m   a   n    ’   s    C    h   u   r   c    h    i   s   t    h   e   w    h    i   t   e    b   u    i    l    d    i   n   g   t   o   t    h   e    l   e    f   t   o    f   t    h   e   p    i   c   t   u   r   e .    (    b    )    S   t    C   o    l   m   a   n    ’   s   c    h   u   r   c    h    f   r   o   m   t    h   e   a    i   r    l   o   o    k    i   n   g   n   o   r   t    h   t   o   w   a   r    d   s   t    h   e    D   o   r   n   o   c    h    F    i   r   t    h ,   s    h   o   w    i   n   g   t    h   e   c   r   o   p   m   a   r    k   o    f   t    h   e   s   u   r   r   o   u   n    d    i   n   g    d    i   t   c    h   w    h    i   c    h    i   s   t    h   o   u   g    h   t   t   o    h   a   v   e    f   o   r   m   e    d   t    h   e   m   o   n   a   s   t    i   c   e   n   c    l   o   s   u   r   e .
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     1     9       8     4
 .    (   c    )    T   a   r    b   a   t    O    l    d    C    h   u   r   c    h ,   o   t    h   e   r   w    i   s   e    S   t    C   o    l   m   a   n    ’   s   c    h   u   r   c    h    P   o   r   t   m   a    h   o   m   a   c    k .    I   t    b   e   c   a   m   e   r   e    d   u   n    d   a   n   t    i   n   t    h   e   e   a   r    l   y
     2     0
   t    h   c   e   n   t   u   r   y ,   w   a   s    b   o   u   g    h   t    b   y    T   a   r    b   a   t    H    i   s   t   o   r    i   c    T   r   u   s   t    i   n
     1     9       8     0
    f   o   r    £
     1
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     1     9     9     9
 .    (    d    )    E   x   c   a   v   a   t    i   o   n   s    i   n   s    i    d   e   t    h   e   n   a   v   e   o    f    S   t    C   o    l   m   a   n    ’   s    C    h   u   r   c    h    i   n
     1     9     9     7
 ,    l   o   o    k    i   n   g   e   a   s   t .
    A    l    l  c  o   p  y  r    i  g    h   t    U  n    i  v  e  r  s    i   t  y  o    f    Y  o  r    k
 .
 
   P  u   b   l   i  s   h  e   d   b  y   M  a  n  e  y   P  u   b   l   i  s   h   i  n  g   (  c   )   S  o  c   i  e   t  y   f  o  r   M  e   d   i  e  v  a   l   A  r  c   h  a  e  o   l  o  g  y
early-medieval monastery at portmahomack 3
      a        bd      c
     f     i     g
 .
     2
    (   a    )    G   e   n   e   r   a    l   v    i   e   w   o    f   e   x   c   a   v   a   t    i   o   n   s    i   n   t    h   e   w   o   r    k   s    h   o   p   a   r   e   a ,    l   o   o    k    i   n   g   s   o   u   t    h  -   e   a   s   t .    (    b    )    E   v    i    d   e   n   c   e    f   o   r   m   e   t   a    l  -   w   o   r    k    i   n   g .    T   o   p   r   o   w   :   a   c   u   p   e    l    l   a   t    i   o   n   t   r   a   y   a   n    d   t    h   r   e   e   m   o   u    l    d   s   ;    b   o   t   t   o   m   r   o   w   :   t   w   o   w    h   e   t   s   t   o   n   e   s ,   a   p   o   s   s    i    b    l   e   t   o   u   c    h   s   t   o   n   e   a   n    d   t    h   r   e   e   c   r   u   c    i    b    l   e   s .    (   c    )    O    b    j   e   c   t   s   a   s   s   o   c    i   a   t   e    d   w    i   t    h   t    h   e   m   a   n   u    f   a   c   t   u   r   e   o    f    l   e   a   t    h   e   r ,   a   n    d   p   o   s   s    i    b    l   y   v   e    l    l   u   m .    T   o   p   :   t   w   o   n   e   e    d    l   e   s   a   n    d   a   c   r   e   s   c   e   n   t  -   s    h   a   p   e    d    k   n    i    f   e   ;    b   o   t   t   o   m   :   t    h   r   e   e   p   u   m    i   c   e   r   u    b    b   e   r   s   w    i   t    h   s   u   s   p   e   n   s    i   o   n    h   o    l   e   s .    (    d    )    R   o   w   s   o    f   c   a   t   t    l   e   m   e   t   a   p   o    d    i   a    l   s   s   e   t   v   e   r   t    i   c   a    l    l   y    i   n   t   o   t    h   e   g   r   o   u   n    d .    T    h   e   s   e   a   r   e    i   n   t   e   r   p   r   e   t   e    d   a   s   t    h   e   p   e   g   s    f   r   o   m   a   v   a   n    i   s    h   e    d   w   o   o    d   e   n   s   t   r   e   t   c    h   e   r    f   o   r   p   r   e   p   a   r    i   n   g   v   e    l    l   u   m .
    A    l    l  c  o   p  y  r    i  g    h   t    U  n    i  v  e  r  s    i   t  y  o    f    Y  o  r    k
 .

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