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Basic Vibration Theory

Basic Vibration Theory

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Basic vibration theory
Basic vibration theory

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Published by: vinceq1 on Aug 04, 2012
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08/06/2014

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TECHNICALBULLETIN
UNISORB
MACHINERYINSTALLATION
SYSTEMS
GB-0008-2
BASICVIBRATIONANDVIBRATIONISOLATIONTHEORY
Theobjectofthefollowingistoacquainttheuserwiththeprinciplesandterminologyencounteredinanalyzingbasicvibratorysystems.Informationispresentedregardingthesimplevibratorysystemandtheprinciplesofvibrationisolationplusadiscussionofhowtheseprinciplesapplytoisolatedfoundationdesign.
THEBASICVIBltAT01YSYSTEM
Vibratorysystemsarecomprisedofameansforstoringpotentialenergy(i.e.,aspring)andameansforstoringKineticenergy(massorinertia)andameansbywhichtheenergyislost(dampened).Thevibrationofasimplevibratorysysteminvolvesthealternatingtransferofenergybetweenitspotentialandkineticforms.Inadampenedsystem,someenergyisdissipatedateachcycleofvibrationandmustbereplacedfromanexternalsourceifasteadystatevibrationistobemaintained.Althoughasinglephysicalstructuremaystorebothkineticandpotentialenergyandmaydissipateenergy,thepropertiesofthatstructurecanbestudiedasseparateelements.Asimpleandconvenientmethodofrepresentingtheelementsofasimplevibratorysystemistoconsiderthatthesystemiscomprisedofaspring,connectedtoarigidinfinitebodyandamasswhichissuspendedbythatspring.InaclassicaltheoreticalanalysiSthedampeningactionisrepresentedbyanadditionalelementconnectedinparallelwiththespringwhichhasthepropertyofdissipatingtheenergywithoutaffectingtheactionofthespring.Themassinthismodelprovidesthemethodofstoringkineticenergy,thespringprovidesthemethodofstoringpotentialenergyand,ofcourse,thedamper(ordashpot)providesthemethoddissipatingthevibratoryenergy(seeFigure1).
1
Figure1
 
Ifwedisplacethemassfromitsrestingpositionbystretchingthespring,weareimpartingpotentialenergythroughtheforceoperatingagainstthespring.Uponreleasingthespring,thepotentialenergystoredbeginstobeconvertedtokineticenergyasthemassisacceleratedfromitsrestingpositionbythespringasitreturnstoitsoriginallength.Alloftheenergyimpartedtothesystemisnowstoredinthekineticenergyofthemassasitpassesthroughthezeropointandcontinuestomoveupward.Kineticenergyistransformedbackintopotentialenergyandonceagainstoredinthespring.Atsomedisplacementabovetheatrestpositionthemasswillcometoacompletestopwiththekineticenergyagainhavingbeentransformedintopotentialenergyandstoredbythesystem.Theeventsdescribedareonecycleofasteadystatevibrationwhichwillrepeatitselfindefinitelyifnoenergyislostfromthesystem.Intherealworld,however,thiswouldnotbethecaseasasmallamountofenergyislostduringeachvibratorycycleindeflectingtheinternalstructureofthespringandthroughairresistanceonthemovingmass.Thisresultsinthedisplacementofthemassbeingslightlylesswitheachvibrationuntilnomotionisencounteredatall.Figure2Theequationsdefiningthis
"st-pleharaonic.ation"
are:2.1DisplacementXXoSIN(2ilfT)T=Time(period)
.
Xo(2I1f)cos2ilfTf=Frequency(Hz).2VelocityX
=
2.3
"
=-Xo(2ilf)2sin211fTAmplitudeofccelerationXXo=DisplacementFigure
3
3.1Displacement=XoXo3.2VelocityMax.=
.
(2ilf)Xoo3.3Acceleration
=
Xo(211f)2XoThemaximumvaluesofdisplacement,velocity,andaccelerationoccurwhenthetrigonometricfunctionoftheabovearenumericallyequalto
1.
TheexpressionsofFigure2thenbecomeFigure3.Displacementistypicallyexpressedininches,velocityasinchespersecondandaccelerationasa4imensionlessmUltipleofthegravitationalaccelerationg.IntheEnglishsystemg=386in/sec.2requiringthattheresultobtainedfromequation3.3abovebedividedby386toobtainthetraditionalvalue.
 
Thephrasecriticaldaapeningoftenisheardwhilediscussingvibratorysystemsandvibrationisolation.Aconditionofcriticaldampeningissimplyoneinwhichenergyislostthroughthedampeningdeviceataratesuchthatifthemassinthespringmasssystemdiscussedabove.wasdisplacedfromzero,itwouldreturntoitsoriginalpositiononly,andthesystemwouldnotbesetintovibratorymotion.----Fn-naturalfrequencyK
=
springconstantWweightofsuspendedbodyggravitationalconstant(386.2)
".=
3.1416Thetermnaturalfrequencyofavibratorysystemreferstotherateatwhichthevibratorymotionrepeatsintheabsenceofexternalinfluence.Forthesimplesingledegreeoffreedomsystem,ifthestiffnessofthespringisknownandtheweightofthesuspendedmassisknown,itispossibletoobtainthenaturalfrequencyincyclespersecondorHzbysolvingthefollowingrelationship:Figure4Intheexpression,Kisthespringconstantofthespring(expressedasthenumberofpoundsrequiredtocausethespringtobedeflectedoneinch).TheletterGreferstotheuniversalgravitationalconstant,386.2in/sec.TheletterWreferstotheweight(inpounds)ofthesuspendedmass.Thisrelationshipcanbemadeevensimplerthroughalittlealgebrawhichyieldsthefollowingrelationship:Figure5
1
=-
;g-
2"'''''
z:
d
stThetermdstrefersto,thestaticdeflectionininchesofthespringelementofthesystem(
d
st
=
7)
withMrepresentingthemassandKthespringconstantasbefore.Thisisthesimplestandmostusefulforminwhichthisrelationshipcanbeexpressedforourpurpose.Lookingattherelationship,itcanbeseenthattheonlyvariablepresentisthestaticdeflectionofthespring.Thenaturalfrequencyofaclassicalvibratorysystemthendependsdirectlyontheamountofdeflectionthatthespringexperienceswhenthesuspendedmassisattachedtoit.

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