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Adapting Malcolm Baldrige Quality Assessment in to Qmeasure Instruments for Measuring Quality Standards of Educational Organisations

Adapting Malcolm Baldrige Quality Assessment in to Qmeasure Instruments for Measuring Quality Standards of Educational Organisations

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Quality performance measurement and application of quality award schemes enable an organization to identify its current quality standards and determine its direction. The measurement itself provides information and data on whether the organisation is achieving its goals and objectives while the award schemes determine its comparative standard. The QMeasure Instruments have been designed to determine the QMeasure Index of the quality standard of an educational organisation and to identify areas where further improvements are required. The main instrument is an adaptation of Malcolm Baldrige Quality Assessment into a framework for operationalising total quality which consists of eight main criteria. For assessment, evidences of activities and performance indicators are collected under various items in these criteria. In addition, two instruments in the form of questionnaires are also designed to gauge the quality measurement index on the standard of services rendered to the main customers: staff and students. The radar chart which is generated from the measurement scores gives a clear picture of the performance of the organisation. QMeasure Instruments are self-assessment tools which allow an educational organisation to monitor its own performance so that it can plan its future direction. The assessment can be used for any quality award schemes. These instruments have been used to determine the quality performance of Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak which led to its winning various awards.
Quality performance measurement and application of quality award schemes enable an organization to identify its current quality standards and determine its direction. The measurement itself provides information and data on whether the organisation is achieving its goals and objectives while the award schemes determine its comparative standard. The QMeasure Instruments have been designed to determine the QMeasure Index of the quality standard of an educational organisation and to identify areas where further improvements are required. The main instrument is an adaptation of Malcolm Baldrige Quality Assessment into a framework for operationalising total quality which consists of eight main criteria. For assessment, evidences of activities and performance indicators are collected under various items in these criteria. In addition, two instruments in the form of questionnaires are also designed to gauge the quality measurement index on the standard of services rendered to the main customers: staff and students. The radar chart which is generated from the measurement scores gives a clear picture of the performance of the organisation. QMeasure Instruments are self-assessment tools which allow an educational organisation to monitor its own performance so that it can plan its future direction. The assessment can be used for any quality award schemes. These instruments have been used to determine the quality performance of Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak which led to its winning various awards.

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04/30/2011

 
Adapting Malcolm Baldrige Quality Assessment into QMeasureInstruments for Measuring Quality Standards of EducationalOrganisations
Jamil Hj Hamali, (PhD)Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak, Malaysia jamil1@sarawak.uitm.edu.my &Iris Syawe Seh Ling ( PhD)Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak, Malaysiairis@sarawak.uitm.edu.my 
ABSTRACT
Quality performance measurement and application of quality award schemes enable anorganization to identify its current quality standards and determine its direction. Themeasurement itself provides information and data on whether the organisation isachieving its goals and objectives while the award schemes determine its comparativestandard. The QMeasure Instruments have been designed to determine the QMeasure Index of the quality standard of an educational organisation and to identify areas where further improvements are required. The main instrument is an adaptation of Malcolm Baldrige Quality Assessment into a framework for operationalising total quality whichconsists of eight main criteria. For assessment, evidences of activities and performanceindicators are collected under various items in these criteria. In addition, twoinstruments in the form of questionnaires are also designed to gauge the qualitymeasurement index on the standard of services rendered to the main customers: staff and students. The radar chart which is generated from the measurement scores gives a clear  picture of the performance of the organisation. QMeasure Instruments are self-assessment tools which allow an educational organisation to monitor its own performance so that it can plan its future direction. The assessment can be used for anyquality award schemes. These instruments have been used to determine the quality performance of Universiti Teknologi MARA Sarawak which led to its winning variousawards.
Key words: quality, performance measurement, self-assessment, quality award schemes
 
1.
 
INTRODUCTION
The choice of educational organizations especially institutions of higher learning by stakeholdersdepends on whether an organization has a quality delivery system which guarantees that a student willreceive quality qualification. In other words, the university is able to meet the requirement of preparing the student for the job market. The basic quality of education is to develop programs andservices that meet the needs of customers, which are basically the students of the university. Meetingneeds of students is really getting a tertiary qualification that is relevant for securing employment.Three elements for quality in higher education suggested by Green (1994) are meeting customers’needs, fitness for purpose and effectiveness in achieving institutional goals.Hamali & Hides (1999) quoted that performance measurement keeps tab of where an organization isand where it is heading. It guides an organization as to whether it is en route to achieving its goal orotherwise. While measurement is a key management activity that provides information necessary for
 
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making decision, monitoring performance and effectively allocating resources (Webster and Hung,1994), performance measurement has the basic functions of coordinating, monitoring and diagnosing(Atkinson
et al
, 1997).The need to consider various elements when designing any measurement system was suggested byvarious authors on performance measurement (Oakland, 1996, Ovretveit, 1993, Edvardsson
et al
,1994). The measurement system must be linked to the organization’s strategies, made up of multiplemeasures, simple and easy to administer, inexpensive, and involve employees to ensure their support.Edvardsson
et al
, (1994) believed that performance measurement should be covered by quantitativeand qualitative methods. This mix method allows for unambiguous measures such as waiting time,service availability and precision as well as information that cannot be obtained through quantitativemethod such as ‘information-rich’ citations of customers’ expectations and requirements.Various authors have suggested a number of commonly used models for performance measurementespecially for quality award schemes. Amongst the models are the Balanced Scorecard, the EuropeanFoundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model and Malcolm Baldrige QualityAssessment and ROKUM. The Balanced Scorecard is the most frequently quoted model in anycommunication on quality, while the EFQM Excellence Model is widely used in Europe. Both theMalaysian Federal and Sarawak State Governments have used Malcolm Baldrige Quality Assessmentin their quality awards such as the Prime Minister Quality Award, Productivity Award and the QualityManagement Excellence Award.A performance measurement system especially for self-assessment is a major requirement for anyorganization (especially educational organization) in providing quality services. It allows anorganization to keep in touch with its customers and enables an organization to compare actual resultswith targets and goals. Together with quality award schemes, it enables an organization to identifywhere it is and where it is going. While the measurement itself provides information and data onwhether the organisation is achieving its goals and objectives, the award schemes determine itscomparative standard with other organizations.QMeasure Instruments which is an adaptation of Malcolm Baldrige Quality Assessment Model, havebeen developed as self-assessment instruments. This paper covers a brief description of MalcomBaldrige Quality Assessment Model according to
 
Baldrige’s “2000 Education Criteria forPerformance Excellence” which was adapted for QMeasure Instruments in 2001. It also covers adescription of QMeasure Instruments and their application in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)Sarawak.
2.
 
MALCOLM BALDRIGE QUALITY ASSESSMENT MODEL
The Baldrige’s Education Criteria for Performance Excellence provides a measurement model fororganizations where education is their core business. The model emphasized the following sevenmain criteria: Leadership, Strategic Planning, Student and Stakeholder Focus, Information andAnalysis, Faculty and Staff Focus, Educational and Support Process Management, and OrganizationalPerformance Results.The two aspects of leadership addressed under the Leadership category are organizational leadership,and public responsibility and citizenship. Strategic Planning covers strategic development anddeployment while Student and Stakeholder Focus include knowledge of student needs andexpectations, and student and stakeholder satisfaction and relationships. Information and Analysisincludes effective performance measurement system and analysis of performance data andinformation. Faculty and Staff Focus looks at the work system, faculty and staff education,training/development, well-being and satisfaction. Educational and Support Process Managementcovers education design and delivery, education support processes and partnership processes, andOrganizational Performance Results focus on students’ performance results, student and stakeholder
 
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focused results (including their satisfaction and dissatisfaction), key budgetary and financialperformance results and faculty and staff results.Baldrige’s Education Criteria for Performance Excellence provides point values to each of the sevencategories with an overall total of 1000 points. 125 points are allocated to Leadership criterion, 85points each to Strategic Planning, Student and Stakeholder Focus, Information and Analysis, Facultyand Staff Focus, and Education and Support Process Management criteria while EducationalPerformance Results criterion gets 450 points.Baldrige’s Education Criteria for Performance Excellence also provides scoring guidelines andpercentage scores for each of the seven criteria on the aspects of approach/deployment and/or results.With regard to scoring guidelines for results, it also awarded percentage scores based on thedescription established during the audit process.
 
3.
 
QMEASURE INSTRUMENTS
The QMeasure Instruments have been designed to determine the QMeasure Index of the qualitystandard of an educational organisation and to identify areas where further improvements are required.The main instrument (QMeasure Instrument III) is an adaptation from the ROKUM (
 Rangka OperasiKualiti Menyeluruh
or A Framework for Operationalising Total Quality, 1996) and Malcolm BaldrigeEducation Criteria for Performance Excellence. This instrument consists of eight main criteria similarto that of seven main criteria in the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Assessment. The eight main criteriaare: Organizational Leadership; Information and Analysis; Strategic and Operational Planning;Development and Management of Resources; Educational Management Process; Innovation;Products/Performance Results; and Customer Satisfaction. The instrument assesses actual evidencesversus a set of expected evidences and based on these, scores are given for the various criteria andsub-criteria measured.The QMeasure Instrument I and QMeasure Instrument II in the form of questionnaires are designed toassess the main customers (student and the staff) perceptions of the services provided by theorganization and ultimately to gauge the quality measurement index on the standard of servicesrendered to them. This index contributes to the Customer Satisfaction criteria in QMeasureInstrument III.Similar to the Malcolm Baldrige Quality Assessment, QMeasure Instruments also allocates pointvalues for each of the eight perspectives of quality. The breakdown of point values are: 90 points forOrganizational Leadership; 75 points for Information and Analysis; 75 points for Strategic andOperational Planning; 150 points for Development and Management of Resources; 150 points forEducational Management Process; 75 points for Innovation; 155 points for Products / PerformanceResults; and 230 points for Customer Satisfaction. The point values indicate that greater importanceor weighting is placed on Customer Satisfaction, Products, Educational Management Process, andDevelopment and Management of Resources.A percentage score is given for each criterion based on evidences and data available. Then, the actualnumber of points for each criterion is calculated. A perfect percentage score for each criterion shouldbe 100% to obtain the total value points for that criterion. This is shown in Figure 1 which is theperfect radar chart for QMeasure.The summation of all the total points obtained for all the criteria is then converted into the QMeasureIndex of the organization. A maximum index of 7 is for a total quality system which is continuouslyenhanced with mature quality culture producing consistent and excellent results. In other words, thisindex means world class quality. The lowest index of 1 is for a system where there is only someawareness of quality with no co-ordination among departments, incongruence results and approach.

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