making decision, monitoring performance and effectively allocating resources (Webster and Hung,1994), performance measurement has the basic functions of coordinating, monitoring and diagnosing(Atkinson
, 1997).The need to consider various elements when designing any measurement system was suggested byvarious authors on performance measurement (Oakland, 1996, Ovretveit, 1993, Edvardsson
,1994). The measurement system must be linked to the organization’s strategies, made up of multiplemeasures, simple and easy to administer, inexpensive, and involve employees to ensure their support.Edvardsson
, (1994) believed that performance measurement should be covered by quantitativeand qualitative methods. This mix method allows for unambiguous measures such as waiting time,service availability and precision as well as information that cannot be obtained through quantitativemethod such as ‘information-rich’ citations of customers’ expectations and requirements.Various authors have suggested a number of commonly used models for performance measurementespecially for quality award schemes. Amongst the models are the Balanced Scorecard, the EuropeanFoundation for Quality Management (EFQM) Excellence Model and Malcolm Baldrige QualityAssessment and ROKUM. The Balanced Scorecard is the most frequently quoted model in anycommunication on quality, while the EFQM Excellence Model is widely used in Europe. Both theMalaysian Federal and Sarawak State Governments have used Malcolm Baldrige Quality Assessmentin their quality awards such as the Prime Minister Quality Award, Productivity Award and the QualityManagement Excellence Award.A performance measurement system especially for self-assessment is a major requirement for anyorganization (especially educational organization) in providing quality services. It allows anorganization to keep in touch with its customers and enables an organization to compare actual resultswith targets and goals. Together with quality award schemes, it enables an organization to identifywhere it is and where it is going. While the measurement itself provides information and data onwhether the organisation is achieving its goals and objectives, the award schemes determine itscomparative standard with other organizations.QMeasure Instruments which is an adaptation of Malcolm Baldrige Quality Assessment Model, havebeen developed as self-assessment instruments. This paper covers a brief description of MalcomBaldrige Quality Assessment Model according to
Baldrige’s “2000 Education Criteria forPerformance Excellence” which was adapted for QMeasure Instruments in 2001. It also covers adescription of QMeasure Instruments and their application in Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM)Sarawak.
MALCOLM BALDRIGE QUALITY ASSESSMENT MODEL
The Baldrige’s Education Criteria for Performance Excellence provides a measurement model fororganizations where education is their core business. The model emphasized the following sevenmain criteria: Leadership, Strategic Planning, Student and Stakeholder Focus, Information andAnalysis, Faculty and Staff Focus, Educational and Support Process Management, and OrganizationalPerformance Results.The two aspects of leadership addressed under the Leadership category are organizational leadership,and public responsibility and citizenship. Strategic Planning covers strategic development anddeployment while Student and Stakeholder Focus include knowledge of student needs andexpectations, and student and stakeholder satisfaction and relationships. Information and Analysisincludes effective performance measurement system and analysis of performance data andinformation. Faculty and Staff Focus looks at the work system, faculty and staff education,training/development, well-being and satisfaction. Educational and Support Process Managementcovers education design and delivery, education support processes and partnership processes, andOrganizational Performance Results focus on students’ performance results, student and stakeholder