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Zero Discharge - Treatment Options for Textile Effluent

Zero Discharge - Treatment Options for Textile Effluent



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Here the ways for attaining zero discharge in a Common Effluent Treatment Plant treating textile efluent in Tirupur, India are discussed.
Here the ways for attaining zero discharge in a Common Effluent Treatment Plant treating textile efluent in Tirupur, India are discussed.

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Published by: Sellappan Eswaramoorthi on Jan 13, 2009
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Corresponding author: dhanapal@epicin.org
Zero Discharge - Treatment Options for Textile Dye Effluent:A Case Study at Manickapurampudur Common EffluentTreatment Plant, Tirupur, Tamil Nadu.
S.Eswaramoorthi, K.Dhanapal and J.Karpagam
EPIC in India, No.33, Anugraha Gardens, Central Studio Road, Trichy Main Road,Singanallur, Coimbatore-641005, India.
Ground water quality in Tirupur has been significantly affected due to the discharge of largequantities of textile dye effluent into the Noyyal river - a tributary of Cauvery. This has alsoresulted in contamination of Orathupalayam Dam and caused serious environmental degradationin the downstream areas of Erode and Karur.At present, around 800 individual dying units and, eight Common Effluent Treatment Plants(CETP) are existing in Tirupur which processes textile dye effluent. At one of the CETPs, theManickapurampudur Common Effluent Treatment Plant (MPCETP), our organisation is engagedin the research & development work for the treatment of textile dye effluent for the past 3 years.The treated effluent at this CETP was regularly collected and analysed for pH, total suspendedsolids, TDS, COD, BOD, sodium, chloride, sulphate, sulphide, and trace metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni,Cd). The results showed that the treated effluent obeyed the effluent discharge norms of the TamilNadu Pollution Control Board, except TDS.In order to reduce effluent load to the Noyyal river, attempts were made at this CETP toevaporate the effluent using solar energy. Though significant progress has been achieved in thisdirection, due to the concerns on air pollution, this method was abandoned.
2In continuation of these efforts to achieve zero-discharge, trials were conducted for implementingreverse osmosis system. Following these trials, this CETP is in the process of implementingreverse osmosis for water reuse, nano-filtration for salt recovery and, Multiple Effect Evaporatorand solar bed for reject management, and wind mill for power generation.Though Multiple Effect Evaporator can be successfully utilised for reject management, itconsumes large quantity of wood as a fuel. This will enhance wood demand and CO emission
into the atmosphere. In order to reduce wood requirement and CO emission, it is planned to
expand the already existing plantations grown by this CETP using the treated effluent.We conclude our paper with a note on emerging technologies for textile dyeing, which couldtotally eliminate the need of water for dying textile fabrics, thereby totally eliminatingenvironmental degradation.
Fig.-1: Location map of Tirupur.
The textile industry plays an important role in Indian economy. It contributes to 20% of industrialproduction, 9% of excise collection, 30% of export revenue, 18% of employment in industrialsector. The apparel industry is one of India's largest foreign exchange earners, accounting for 12percent of the country's total exports. Since global trade in textile and clothing is expected toreach US$ 600 Billions in 2010 from the present level of US$ 356 Billions (Confederation of Indian Industry, 2004; http://www.ciionline.org), there is an urgent need to augment our textileproduction capacity. At the same time, it is very essential that the environmental problemsassociated with industrial development is properly addressed to sustain both industrial as well aseconomic growth.Tirupur, a small town, about 50 km fromCoimbatore, is one of the well-known places inhosiery and knitwear manufacture in internationalmarket (Fig.1). Tirupur's association with thecotton trade goes at least as far back as thenineteenth century, the first textile manufacturingunit was established in the town in 1935 (Banerjeeand Munshi, 2003). Tirupur has entered into theinternational trade in 1980s with the manufactureof cardigans, jersey, pullovers, ladies blouses,dresses and skirts, trousers, nightwear, sportswearand industrial wear (Apparel Export Promotion Council, 2004). Small-scale garmentmanufacturing for export has developed in Tirupur rapidly in the 1980s and 1990s, using locallygrown cotton in a small-scale textile centre, mostly from the informal sector (Harris
et al.
, 2000).This growth was fuelled by a parallel decline in agriculture, whereby most of the farmers turned

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