Ensuring a complete development and implementation environment designed for use in a specific functionrequiring expert systems support. (
International Journal of Bank Marketing
: Chorafas, 1987)KM IT concerns organizing and analyzing information in a company's computer databases so thisknowledge can be readily shared throughout a company, instead of languishing in the department where itwas created, inaccessible to other employees. (
, 1998)Identification of categories of knowledge needed to support the overall business strategy, assessment of current state of the firm's knowledge and transformation of the current knowledge base into a new andmore powerful knowledge base by filling knowledge gaps. (
: Gopal & Gagnon, 1995)Combining indexing, searching, and push technology to help companies organize data stored in multiplesources and deliver only relevant information to users. (
: Hibbard, 1997)KM in general tries to organize and make available important know-how, wherever and whenever it'sneeded. This includes processes, procedures, patents, reference works, formulas, "best practices," forecastsand fixes. Technologically, intranets, groupware, data warehouses, networks, bulletin boardsvideoconferencing are key tools for storing and distributing this intelligence. (
: Maglitta,1996)Mapping knowledge and information resources both on-line and off-line; Training, guiding and equippingusers with knowledge access tools; Monitoring outside news and information. (
: Maglitta,1995)KM incorporates intelligent searching, categorization and accessing of data from disparate databases, E-mail and files. (
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: Willett & Copeland, 1998)Understanding the relationships of data; Identifying and documenting rules for managing data; andAssuring that data are accurate and maintain integrity. (
: Strapko, 1990)Facilitation of autonomous coordinability of decentralized subsystems that can state and adapt their ownobjectives. (
Human Systems Management
, Zeleny, 1987)KM programs are typically tied to organizational objectives such as improved performance, competitiveadvantage, innovation, developmental processes, lessons learnt transfer for example between projects and thegeneral development of collaborative practices. KM is KM programs are typically tied to organizationalobjectives such as improved performance, competitive advantage, innovation, developmental processes,lessons learnt transfer for example between projects and the general development of collaborative practices.KM is frequently linked and related to what has become known as the learning organization, lifelong learningand continuous improvement. KM may be distinguished from Organizational Learning by a greater focus onthe management of knowledge as an asset and the development and cultivation of the channels through whichknowledge, information and signal flow.There is a broad range of thought on KM with no unanimous definition. The approaches vary by author andschool. KM may be viewed from each of the following perspectives:
Techno-centric: A focus on technology, ideally those that enhance knowledge sharing/growth.
Organizational: How does the organization need to be designed to facilitate knowledge processes?Which organizations work best with what processes?
Ecological: Seeing the interaction of people, identity, knowledge and environmental factors as acomplex adaptive system.
A key distinction made by the majority of KM practitioners is Nonaka's reformulation of Polanyi's distinctionbetween tacit and explicit knowledge. The former is often subconscious, internalized, and the individual mayor may not be aware of what he or she knows and how he or she accomplishes particular results. At theopposite end of the spectrum is conscious or explicit knowledge, knowledge that the individual holdsexplicitly and consciously in mental focus, and may communicate to others. In the popular form of thedistinction, tacit knowledge is what is in heads and explicit knowledge is what we have codified (Table 2).
Table2. Tacit and Explicit Knowledge