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CEPAL, Smart Grids in Latin America and the Caribbean, 7-2012

CEPAL, Smart Grids in Latin America and the Caribbean, 7-2012

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Published by Detlef Loy

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Published by: Detlef Loy on Aug 06, 2012
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11/20/2013

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Project document
Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
Smart gridsin Latin America and the Caribbean
Michele De NigrisManlio F. Coviello
 
 
The document was prepared by the ECLAC International Senior Consultant, Michele De Nigris, it was coordinated byManlio F. Coviello, Chief of the Energy and Natural Resources Unit, of ECLAC, who also contributed substantially to thedocument’s preparation.The work is part of the outputs of the project ITA/10/004 "Smart energy networks (Smart Grids) in South America",implemented by ECLAC with financial support from the Cooperation of the Directorate-General for Development Ministryof Foreign Affairs of Italy.The views expressed in this document, which has been reproduced without formal editing, are those of the author and donot necessarily reflect those of the Organization.LC/W.486Copyright © United Nations, July 2012. All rights reserved.Printed in the United Nations, Santiago, Chile.
 
ECLAC – Project Documents collection
Smart grids in Latin America and the Caribbean
3
Table of contents
Executive summary.........................................................................................................................7
 
I. Smart grids.............................................................................................................................15
 
 A. Context, concept and general definition.........................................................................15
 
B. Definition........................................................................................................................17
 
C. “One Size Does Not Fit All”............................................................................................18
 
D. Systemic vision: functions of a smart grid......................................................................20
 
E. Technological aspects....................................................................................................23
 
1. Autonomous operation and self-healing capacities................................................23
 
2. Greater resistance and reliability in the event of natural disastersand man-made attacks...........................................................................................25F. Regulatory aspects........................................................................................................271. Raising awareness, motivating and involving users...............................................27
 
2. Changing from centralized to distributed generation..............................................28
 
G. Economic aspects..........................................................................................................28
 
1. Optimizing operability and resources.....................................................................28
 
2. Improving the quality of electricity..........................................................................30
 
3. Empowering new markets......................................................................................31
 
H. Environmental aspects...................................................................................................32
 
1. Integrating renewable sources and all types of generation....................................32
 
2. Reduction of deleterious gas emissions.................................................................34
 
I. Coordinated regional actions to promote and develop smart grids...............................35
 
1. European Energy Research Alliance EERA.......................................................35
 
2. International Smart grid Action Network ISGAN.................................................43
 
II. Progressive evolution of a distribution network into a smart grid..........................................45
 
 A. Starting point – the present situation..............................................................................45
 
B. Automatic meter reading (AMR).....................................................................................47
 
C. Integration of a limited amount of distributed generation...............................................52
 
D. Advanced Information and communication technologies (ICT) appliedto the distribution system...............................................................................................55
 
E. Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and demand-participation..............................58
 
F. Integration of extended shares of distributed generation in the distributionnetwork: active distribution networks (ADN)..................................................................62G. Storage and recharging of plug-in electric vehicles.......................................................67H. Advanced distribution automation and monitoring.........................................................69
 
I. Microgrids.......................................................................................................................71
 
III. Latin America test cases: Chile, Brazil, Uruguay, Mexico, Panama and Jamaica................75
 
 A. Methodology for the test cases:.....................................................................................75
 

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