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The European Union Lists of Terrorist Organizations

The European Union Lists of Terrorist Organizations

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Published by Wael Lafi
This study examing the European Union counter terrorism legislation and European Union lists of terrorist organizations.
This study examing the European Union counter terrorism legislation and European Union lists of terrorist organizations.

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Published by: Wael Lafi on Aug 07, 2012
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The European Union Lists of Terrorist OrganizationsBY: Wael Lafi
I.
 
INTRODUCTION
Eleven years have elapsed since the barbarous 9/11 attacks against the innocent civilians atthe World Trade Center. These attacks took the lives of thousands of American people whothought they were in the safest state in the world. No one was thinking that the terroristattacks would extend to the United States of America, the premier military force in the worldand the most politically and economically influential, It was a turning point in dealing withphenomenon of the terrorism .The phenomenon of terrorism was not new, but the development of the performance of thesegroups and their ability to work beyond borders gave them an advantage against states.Terrorists could cross borders and the state could not protect itself alone without theinternational community.In point of fact, the 9/11 attacks were the first attacks in the US promulgated by al Qaida, andthey were harsher and more well-organized than its other attacks. Al Qaida, which firstappeared in the beginning of the eighties, led to jihad by Afghani fighters against the Sovietmilitary force after the Soviet government invasion of Afghanistan at the end of 1979. Thepower between the Afghani and the Soviet forces was not equal, which incited Muslimfighters around the world to support and join the Afghans in the war, who became knownafterwards as Arab Afghan fighters led by Osama Bin Laden
1
. At that time as result of the
1
.(National commission on terrorist attacks , the 9/11/commission Report. 55. (2004)http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf)
 
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cold war between United States and the Soviet Union, the US government, backed up byCongress, started outfitting the Afghan fighters with arms which became known as theCharles Nesbitt Wilson war.
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As mentioned previously, the 9/11 attacks were not the firstwith al Qaeda
‟s
signature. In 1999, Bin Ladin issued a fatwa for jihad against the westerncountries
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.The hostility against American troops began after they were deployed to Somalia in late1992, which led them to be exposed to many offenses by Al Qaeda. In the years 1992-1996,attacks
 
against American troops had increased in Somalia, Saudi Arabia, and even in theUnited States, including the 1993 bombing of World Trade Center, the destruction of landmarks in New York in the same year, and the 1995 Manila air plot to blow up a dozenU.S airliners over the Pacific.
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But terrorist attacks were not limited to U.S troops orAmerican facilities in the world, but also there were terrorist attacks in India (Mumbai in1993, Kokrajar in 1995), Algeria (Sede Hmed in 1996), and Russia in 1999.Terrorism is not a new phenomenon. What we know as terrorism today has roots back 2,000years. Historically, terrorist attacks have been motivated by diverse factors. As Religiouslymotivated like Sicari and Zealot, Jewish groups who were active in the Middle East duringthe Roman Occupation
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. The Assassins, an offshoot of a Shia Muslim sect known as theIsmailis, had a political motivation even though their grass roots were sectarian
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. TheThugees, an Indian religious cult, ritually strangled their
victims‟
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. The term terrorism started
2
Jeff Seldin, US Congressman Who Backed Afghan Fighters Against, the Soviets Dies, voice of America(October,16,2011), http://www.voanews.com/english/news/Congressman-Who-Backed-Afghan-Fighters-Against-the-Soviets-Dies-84102437.html
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((National commission on terrorist attacks, the 9/11/commission Report. 55. (2004)http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf)
4
((National commission on terrorist attacks, the 9/11/commission Report. 60. (2004)http://govinfo.library.unt.edu/911/report/911Report.pdf)
5
 
Webster’s, third new international dictionary, 2657, Merriam
-webster, 1984.
6
Susan.D.Moeller, compassion fatigue, haw the media sell disease, famine, war and death,161, WalterCronkite, ISBAN, 1999
7
Elleke Boehme and Stephen Morton, terror and the post-colonial, 188, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010
 
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to be used during the French Revolution to describe groups that acted violently to oppose thegovernment This is the first time that a political motivation for terrorism appeared .UntilWorld War II, the terrorist act was restricted within the territory a particular country. AfterWorld War II, when liberation movements fought colonization, which was known asdecolonization, across the Middle East, Asia, and Africa. These fighters become known lateras
“freedoms fighters
,
” which reflect
ed a dispute at the international level about thedefinition of terrorism and the question about how to distinguish
terrorists‟ from “freedomfighters”
who had a political motivation.Since 9/11 all states have realized that to win this war they must fight together hand by handand shoulder by shoulder. On September 28, 2001 the Security Council unanimously adoptedanti-terrorism resolution calls to suppress the financing of terrorism and improveinternational cooperation. The council emphasized that the states had to prevent and suppressthe financing of terrorism and exchange information and cooperate to prevent and suppressterrorist acts, and the states had to become parties to international conventions and protocolsto combat terrorism
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.The exchange of information and cooperation among states to fight terror organizations wasthe greatest effort in the war against terrorism. This led the United States to seek help from itsmost important partner in war against terrorism, the European Union.This study is an attempt to examine the collective effort of the United States and theEuropean Union in the war against terrorism, by looking at agreements between the UnitedStates and the European police on the exchange of personal data and related information.
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UNITED NATIOIN, anti-terrorism resolution, 1373. Available athttp://www.un.org/Docs/scres/2001/sc2001.htm. 
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Supplemental Agreement Between the Europol Police Office and the United States of America on theExchange of Personal Data and Related Information, U.S.-E.U., Dec. 20, 2002, available at http://www.europol.europa.eu/legal/agreements/Agreements/16268-1.pdf  

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