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The State of Latinos in the United States

The State of Latinos in the United States

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Vanessa Cárdenas and Sophia Kerby look at the successes and challenges of Latino Americans.
Vanessa Cárdenas and Sophia Kerby look at the successes and challenges of Latino Americans.

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Published by: Center for American Progress on Aug 08, 2012
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1Center or American Progress |  The State o Latinos in the United States
 The State of Latinos in the United States
Although This Growing Population Has Experienced MarkedSuccess, Barriers Remain
Vanessa Cárdenas and Sophia Kerby August 7, 2012
Our counry is rapidly changing. As we approach he year 2050, our naion will be increasingly more diverse, and Lainos will be one o he orces driving hisdemographic change. According o he 2010 U.S. Census Bureaupopulaion esimae, here are roughly 50.5 million Hispanics
 represening abou 16 percen o he U.S. populaion. By 2050, whendemographers ell us ha here will be no racial or ehnic majoriy among he general populaion o he Unied Saes, i is projecedha he Laino populaion will double o 30 percen.
Consequenly,he role o Lainos in shaping our counry’s poliical and economicclimae is becoming more signican.Since Lainos are one o he ases-growing populaions in he coun-ry, i’s imperaive ha we address he challenges ha his communiy aces. I is well-documened ha communiies o color, includingLainos, ace signican dispariies in healh care, educaion, and eco-nomic indicaors. Tus, i’s crucial ha our local and naional leaderspu ino place policy soluions o address hese dispariies.Tis issue brie examines he sae o Lainos in he Unied Saes a largein regards o ve key areas: he workplace, educaional atainmen, healh, veerans aairs, and poliical leadership. Le’s examine each in urn.
Hispanic Americans: Who they are and where they live
 Among Laino subgroups, Mexican Americans make up he largessubgroup a 63 percen and, a 38 percen, have he larges proporiono people under he age o 18. In 2010 he saes wih he larges Lainopopulaions were Caliornia (14 million), exas (9.5 million), Florida
Growing Latino presence
Latinos driving demographic changein the United States
Source: U.S. Census, available at http://www.census.gov/population/wwwprojections/summarytables.html
CurrentHispanicpopulationProjected 2050Hispanicpopulation
15%30%Population growthYouth
Today, one in five children under the age of 18 is HispanicIn 2050, two in five children under the age of 18 will be Hispanic
2Center or American Progress |  The State o Latinos in the United States
(4.2 million), New York (3.4 million), and Illinois (1.2 million). O paricular noe is heac ha he rapid growh in communiies o color, especially among Lainos, has creaeda signican racial-generaional gap in he Unied Saes. In 2010, 34.9 percen o Hispanics were under he age o 18, compared o 20.9 percen o non-Hispanic whies.
U.S. labor force at a glance
Te U.S. workorce is undoubedly becoming more diverse. According o he Bureauo Labor Saisics, as o June 2012 Lainos represened 16 percen o he U.S. labororce, a nearly 25 million workers.
By 2018 i is projeced ha Lainos will make up18 percen o he workorce. O Lainos in he labor orce, 58 percen are men, and42 percen are women, which is slighly smaller han he percenage o women—46percen—who make up he whie labor orce. As Lainos coninueo ener he workorce in greaer numbers due o populaion growh,paricularly among young aduls, i’s imporan o noe he educaionlevel and he unemploymen raes among Laino workers.Employed Lainos are less likely o hold a college degree han eiher whies or Arican Americans, and are heavily concenraed in cer-ain indusries and secors. Only abou one in six employed Lainosabove he age o 25 holds a college degree,
which is less han hal he porion o employed whies. A 83.7 percen, Lainos are signi-canly more likely o work in he privae secor han heir whie (78.5percen) and black (76.9 percen) counerpars. In conras, Lainosare ar less likely o have a governmen job, and he gap widens a hesenior execuive level in he public secor.
Unemploymen raes or Lainos vary depending on where hey live, heir educaionlevel, and wheher hey are oreign born or naive. Te unemploymen rae or Lainosaveraged 11.5 percen in 2011,
compared o 7.9 percen or whies. Te Laino unem-ploymen numbers are ied in par o he ac ha Lainos are overrepresened in indus-ries such as consrucion and manuacuring, boh o which los he mos jobs duringhe recession, and ha hey are underrepresened in secors ha experienced job growhduring he recession—educaion and healh services.Unemploymen raes or Lainos vary depending on educaional atainmen. Across allracial groups, greaer educaional atainmen is correlaed o improved employmen ou-comes. Unemploymen coninues o be higher or hose wih ewer years o schooling.
05%10%15%20%25%2011 2020 205015%24%19%
Source: U.S. Department of Labor, available at http://www.dol.gov/_sec/ media/reports/hispaniclaborforce/ and Bureau of Labor Statistics, Labor forceprojections, available at http://www.bls.gov/opub/mlr/2006/11/art3full.pdf 
Changing face of U.S. labor force
Latinos will continue entering workforcein growing numbers
3Center or American Progress |  The State o Latinos in the United States
In 2011 unemploymen or Lainos wih only a high school degree was 10.3 percen,
 compared o 8.4 percen o whies wih only a high school degree.Te Laino labor orce is also more likely o be oreign born han he res o he work-orce. In 2011 more han hal (52.2 percen) o he Laino labor orce was oreign born,compared o 15.9 percen o he overall labor orce. Hisorically, oreign-born Lainosexperience lower unemploymen raes han naive-born Lainos. Across ehnic groups wihin he Laino communiy, Puero Ricans have he highes unemploymen raes,and Cubans experience he lowes level o unemploymen.For Lainos, as is he case or all Americans, one’s place o residence also aecs employ-men raes. Saes wih he highes levels o unemploymen or Lainos in 2011 includeCaliornia, Arizona, Illinois, New York, Florida, and exas. I is no surprise ha saes wih larger Laino populaions have a larger number o unemployed Lainos. Wihinsaes, Lainos are more likely o move wihin a couny, indicaing hey are more likely o move or employmen opporuniies.
During he Grea Recession employmen raes ellsharply—paricularly among Lainos. As men-ioned earlier, Laino workers los jobs primarily in consrucion, manuacuring, proessional and business services. Collecively, hese jobs accounedor nearly 1.1 million jobs los among Laino work-ers. Te Bureau o Labor Saisics projecs hahe consrucion indusry will grow by 2.9 percenannually hrough 2020.
Tis growh should grealy  bene Lainos, who are overrepresened in hisindusry; he majoriy o his growh, however, will be coming rom regained jobs ha were los duringhe recession. Te healh care and social assisanceindusry is projeced o grow he mos, wih anaddiional 5.6 million jobs projeced beween now and 2020. Unorunaely, Laino workers are signi-canly underrepresened in hese secors, making uponly 10.4 percen o workers in hese indusries.Conversely, one area holding grea economic promise or Lainos—and an area in which hey are prominen—is small-business ownership. According o he CensusBureau Survey o Business Owners,
Laino-owned businesses were he ases-growingsmall-business segmen prior o he recession.Hispanics own 2.3 million businesses. Te srides in business ownership are paricularly apparen among Laino women. In ac, Laina enrepreneurs sar businesses in he
Latino labor force deployment
Professions and trades employing the majority of Latino workers
05%10%15%20%ConstructionRepair and maintenanceand personaland laundry servicesAdministration and support;and waste managementand remediation servicesHealth care andsocial assistanceTransportationand warehousing15.1%14.9%13.9%10.4%8.9%
Source: http://www.census.gov/econ/sbo/get07sof.html?11

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