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10SystemsofLinearEquations
Sheet10.SystemsofLinearEquations
Exercise10.1.
Solvethefollowingsystems(a)bymeansofCramer'sRule(b)bymeansofelementaryoperationsa
x
1
3
x
2
+ 5
x
3
=
42
x
1
+ 5
x
2
x
3
= 3
x
1
x
2
+ 3
x
3
=
4
b
x
1
+ 2
x
2
x
3
= 23
x
1
x
2
+
x
3
=
12
2
x
1
+ 8
x
2
3
x
3
= 12
c
5
x
1
3
x
2
+ 7
x
3
= 0
4
x
1
+
x
2
5
x
3
= 0
x
1
x
2
+
x
3
= 0
d
x
2
3
x
3
+ 4
x
4
= 0
x
1
2
x
3
= 03
x
1
+ 2
x
2
5
x
4
= 24
x
1
5
x
3
= 0
e
2
x
y
+
z
= 23
x
+ 2
y
+ 2
z
=
2
x
2
y
+
z
= 1
f
x
+ 2
y
3
z
= 04
x
+ 8
y
7
z
+
t
= 1
x
+ 2
y
z
+
t
= 1
x
+
y
+ 4
z
+ 6
t
= 0
g
1 1
11
3 2
1 2
1
x
1
x
2
x
3
=
201
h
x
1
2
x
2
=
22
x
2
+
x
3
= 1
x
1
x
3
= 1
i
x
1
+ 3
x
2
x
3
= 8
x
1
+
x
2
3
x
3
= 22
x
2
+
x
3
= 5
j
x
1
+
x
2
+
x
3
= 02
x
1
x
2
x
3
=
3
x
1
x
2
+
x
3
= 0
Exercise10.2.
Solvethefollowingsystemsa
2 5
73
8 5
x
1
x
2
x
3
=
12
b
1
2 51 2
3
x
1
x
2
x
3
=
00
c
1
43
33 2
53 4
95 2
8
x
1
x
2
x
3
=
3090
d
x
1
2
x
2
= 2
2
x
1
+ 4
x
2
+
x
3
= 3
x
1
+ 2
x
2
+
x
3
= 1
Lastupdate:January7,200

10SystemsofLinearEquations
Exercise10.3.
Findthegeneralsolutionsofthefollowingsystems.Indicatetwodistinctparticular solutions: a
2
x
1
x
2
+
x
3
x
4
= 0
x
1
+ 3
x
2
x
3
+ 2
x
4
= 0
x
1
+ 2
x
2
+
x
4
= 0
b
x
1
+ 2
x
3
+
x
4
= 02
x
1
x
2
+ 2
x
3
x
4
= 0
x
1
+ 2
x
2
x
3
= 02
x
1
+
x
2
+ 3
x
3
= 0
c
x
1
+
x
2
+ 2
x
3
+ 3
x
4
= 02
x
1
3
x
2
+ 4
x
3
+
x
4
= 04
x
1
x
2
+ 8
x
3
+ 7
x
4
= 0
d
x
1
x
2
+ 2
x
3
=
3
x
2
+
x
3
=
2
x
1
2
x
2
+
x
3
=
1
Exercise10.4.
Findoneofthebasissolutionsofthefollowingsystemsa
x
1
x
2
+
x
3
x
4
=
12
x
1
+
x
2
3
x
3
+
x
4
= 5
b
x
1
2
x
2
= 12
x
2
+
x
3
=
1
x
1
+
x
3
= 0
c
x
1
x
2
+
x
3
+ 2
x
4
= 0
x
1
+ 2
x
2
+
x
3
= 1
2
x
2
+ 3
x
4
=
2
d
2
x
1
+
x
3
+
x
4
= 5
x
1
+
x
2
x
3
=
23
x
1
+ 2
x
3
+
x
5
=
2
Exercise10.5.
Findallbasissolutionsofthesystemsa
x
1
2
x
2
+ 3
x
4
= 2
2
x
1
+ 4
x
2
+
x
3
+
x
4
= 3
b
x
1
+
x
2
+
x
3
= 1
2
x
1
+ 2
x
2
+ 3
x
3
=
1
x
1
+ 3
x
2
+ 4
x
3
= 0
c
5
x
2
+
x
5
= 3+ 6
x
2
+
x
4
= 3
x
1
7
x
2
= 28
x
2
+
x
3
= 1
d
x
1
+
x
2
+
x
3
= 3
2
x
1
+ 2
x
2
+ 3
x
3
= 3
x
1
+ 3
x
2
+ 4
x
3
= 6
Exercise10.6.
Solvethesystemofequationsbymeansofelementaryoperationsonrows.Whatarthebasisvariablesandthefreevariablesofthefoundgeneralsolution.Indicatetwodistinctparticular solutionsofthesystem,oneofthemshouldbethebasissolution.Findtheconditionsforthegeneral solutiontobenonnegative a
x
+ 2
y
+ 3
z
+
t
= 12
x
+ 4
y
z
+ 2
t
= 23
x
+ 6
y
+ 10
z
+ 3
t
= 3
x
+
y
+
z
+
t
= 0
b
2
x
+
y
+
z
+ 2
t
= 16
x
2
y
+ 3
z
+
t
= 3
x
+
y
+ 2
z
5
t
=
9
x
+
y
+
z
= 8
Lastupdate:January7,200

10SystemsofLinearEquations
Exercise10.7.
Solvethesystemofequations
6
x
1
+ 3
x
2
x
3
+
x
4
= 3
x
2
+
x
3
x
4
= 13
x
1
+ 3
x
2
+
x
3
x
4
= 3
withrespecttotheindicatedvariables,characterizethesetofnonnegativesolutions(a)Thebasisvariables
x
1
, x
2
,
(b)thebasisvariables
x
3
, x
4
,
(c)thebasisvariables
x
2
, x
3
.
Exercise10.1.
a
x
1
= 1
x
2
= 0
x
3
=
1
b
x
1
= 1
x
2
=
12
x
3
=
2
c
x
1
= 0
x
2
= 0
x
3
= 0
d
x
1
= 0
x
2
=
813
x
3
= 0
x
4
=
213
e
x
= 2
y
=
1
z
=
3
f
t
= 1
x
= 4
y
=
2
z
= 0
g
x
1
=
1
x
2
= 1
x
3
= 2
h
x
1
= 0
x
2
= 1
x
3
=
1
i
x
1
= 3
x
2
= 2
x
3
= 1
j
x
1
=
1
x
2
= 0
x
3
= 1
Exercise10.2.
a
x
1
=
1831
+
x
3
x
2
=
131
+
x
3
x
3
R
b
x
1
=
x
3
x
2
= 2
x
3
x
3
R
c
x
1
=
277
x
2
=
914
x
3
=
187
d)Nosolution
Exercise10.3.
a
x
1
=
15
x
4
25
x
3
x
2
=
15
x
3
35
x
4
x
3
R
x
4
R
b
x
1
=
713
x
4
x
2
=
513
x
4
x
3
=
313
x
4
x
4
R
c
x
1
=
2
x
3
2
x
4
x
2
=
x
4
x
3
R
x
4
R
d
x
1
=
3
x
3
5
x
2
=
x
3
2
x
3
R
Exercise10.4.
a
x
1
=
23
x
3
+
43
x
2
=
53
x
3
x
4
+
73
x
3
R
x
4
R
b
x
1
=
x
3
x
2
=
12
x
3
12
x
3
R
c
x
1
=
54
x
4
+ 1
x
2
=
53
x
3
x
4
+
73
x
3
R
x
4
R
d
x
1
=
27
x
4
17
x
5
127
x
2
=
32
x
4
+ 1
x
3
=
74
x
4
x
4
R
x
5
R
Lastupdate:January7,200
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