Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
H2 Biology - Notes on Cell and Nuclear Divisions

H2 Biology - Notes on Cell and Nuclear Divisions

Ratings: (0)|Views: 275 |Likes:
Published by SefLRho

More info:

Published by: SefLRho on Aug 09, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

11/22/2012

pdf

text

original

 
1 |
Page
 
Created by SefLRho (2012) DHS
Notes on cell and nuclear divisions
 
Explain the importance of mitosis in growth, repair and asexual reproduction
 
 
Mitosis aids in the formation of 2 daughter cells that are genetically identical to the parent cells
 
Achieved via the maintenance of (a)
identical chromosomal numbers
(b)
exact geneticinformation
and (c)
diploid number
 
 
TerminologyTerm Description/Structure Function
Nucleus
 
Spherical, dense body usuallylocated in the centre (for animalcells) and at the side (for plantcells
 
Enclosed by nuclear membrane(double membrane that links torER) and has nuclear pores
 
Control the genetic material of the cell in the form of chromosomes
 
Control centre of activities of acell
 
Nuclear DNA carries theinstructions for protein synthesis
 
Production of ribosomes and allRNAs
 
Essential for cell divisionChromatin
 
Uncoiled and
diffused
form of chromosome
 
Exists
when cell is not dividing
 
 
Consists of DNA and proteinsorganized into
nucleosomes
 
Types of proteins
o
 
Histone
(small alkaline
 –
 consist of singlepolypeptide chain)
o
 
Non-histonechromosomal proteins(DNA polymerase,scaffold proteins,regulatory proteins)
 
Chromosomal DNA binds tohistones
which are positively-charged. Forms ionic bonds.
 
-ve DNA and +ve histone form
beads on a string’
chromatinfibre
 
Beads = DNA + histones
 
Linker
= double-stranded DNA
 
Thin fibre coils around itself into
solenoid
,
6 nucleosomes in oneturn of the helix
, forms
30nmchromatin fibre
 
30nm chromatin fibre attach to
scaffold
forming loops about300nm
 
Further condensation forms
 
Transcriptionally active
 
DNA
replication
 
 
2 |
Page
 
Created by SefLRho (2012) DHSchromosomesChromosome
 
Condensed
form of chromatinwhen cell prepares to divide
 
Transcriptionally inactive
 
Organized the chromatinthreads into structured form fordivisionSisterchromatids
 
Identical copies of DNAmolecules attached at
centromere
 
 
Adhesive proteins
known as
cohesions
hold the two together
 
pulled apart during cell divisionto become
chromosomes
againCentromere
 
region holding sister chromatidstogether
 
kinetochore
(protein oncentromere) interacts withspindle fibres
 
Required
for
the correctsegregation
of thechromosomesHomologouschromosomes
 
Chromosomes that are capableof pairing up to form bivalents
 
Have same genetic loci,centromere positions and armlength, same staining pattern,determine same traits but notidentical as they can code of 
difference alleles
 
 
Each member of a bivalent iscalled a homologue
 
Required for genetic variation atcrossing over in prophase IKaryotype
 
An orderly array of differentchromosome types of a cell
 
To produce karyotype,chromosomes are interrupted atmetaphase and takenphotograph off to be rearrangedinto
autosomes
 
 
Study of chromosomes inorganism speciesCentrioles
 
Found in animal and lower plantcells
 
Occur in pairs
and lie at rightangles to each otherCentrosome
 
Organelle
in plant and animalcells
 
Region
 
occupied
 
by
pair of 
centrioles
 
 
Located near nucleus
 
Initiates development of spindlemicrotubulesPloidy
 
refer to the number of chromosomes
sets in a nucleus
 
1 set = haploid
 
2 sets = diploid
 
>2 set = polyploid
 
Describe the mitotic cell cycle
 
Regular sequence of events
 
3 |
Page
 
Created by SefLRho (2012) DHS
 
Has 4 phases designated by and M
 
Not all cells follow the cycle continuously,
 
some cells break out of cycle at G
o
 Interphase G
1
 
 
1
st
gap phase
 
 
Intensive cellular synthesis
o
 
Cell growth
 
o
 
Free deoxyribonucleotide
synthesis
o
 
Organelles synthesis
o
 
High rate
of biosynthetic activites
 
G
1
checkpoint
 
o
 
Ensure that cell is ready of DNA synthesis
 
Check
size
of cell
 
If 
nutrients
are sufficient to support the resultingdaughter cells
o
 
Cell cycle arrested
if 
damaged
DNA is detected
o
 
Cells sometimes leave the cycle and quite dividing, goinginto G
o
phases eg nerve cells and liver cellsG
o
 
 
Resting stage
where cell has stopped dividing
 
Cells may enter this phase due to achievement of fullydifferentiation eg neurons
 
Cells may enter this phase due to DNA damage. A biochemicalalternative to the self-destruction of such a damaged cellS
 
Synthesis
phase
o
 
Histones
synthesized
o
 
DNA replication
occursG
2
 
 
2
nd
 
gap
phase
 
Continuation of intensive cellular synthesis
o
 
Cell growth
o
 
Organelles synthesis
o
 
ATP production
 
 
At the end of G
2
,
o
 
nucleus still
well-defined
o
 
nuclear envelope
still
present
 
o
 
chromosomes
duplicated
but in
chromatin
form
 
For animal and lower plant cells
o
 
Two centrosomes are present
o
 
Microtubules extend from the centrosome in radial arrayscalled
asters
 
 
G
s
checkpoint
to ensure cell is ready of mitosis and cytokinesis
o
 
Ensures that DNA replication in S phase has beencompleted
o
 
MPF
(
maturation
 
promotion
 
factor
)
triggers
 
cell’s passage
from G
2
to MMitosis MCytokinesis
 
Physical division of cytoplasm occurs
 
Equal distribution of organelles and cytoplasm in both cells
 
Describe the associated behavior of chromosomes, nuclear envelope, cel membrane andcentrioles during mitotic cell division
 

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->