Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathem-atician, historian, religious sceptic, social reformer, socialist and pacifist.Although he spent the majority of his life in England, he was born inWales, where he also died. Russell led the British "revolt against ideal-ism" in the early 1900s and is considered one of the founders of analyticphilosophy along with his protégé Wittgenstein and his elder Frege. Heco-authored, with A. N. Whitehead, Principia Mathematica, an attemptto ground mathematics on logic. His philosophical essay "On Denoting"has been considered a "paradigm of philosophy." Both works have had aconsiderable influence on logic, mathematics, set theory, linguistics andanalytic philosophy. He was a prominent anti-war activist, championingfree trade between nations and anti-imperialism. Russell was imprisonedfor his pacifist activism during World War I, campaigned against Adolf Hitler, for nuclear disarmament, criticised Soviet totalitarianism and theUnited States of America's involvement in the Vietnam War. In 1950,Russell was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, "in recognition of hisvaried and significant writings in which he champions humanitarianideals and freedom of thought."
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