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The Solid (Unit I )

The Solid (Unit I )

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Published by Vijay Sethi

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Published by: Vijay Sethi on Aug 09, 2012
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11/03/2014

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UNIT I
 Syllabus :
 
THE SOLID STATE
 Marks-4
Classification of Solids based on different binding forces : molecular, Ionic,covalent and metallic solids, Amorphous and crystalline solids (elementaryidea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculationof density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids number of atoms per unit cellin a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
1.Gystalline and Amorphous solids (comparison)Property Crystalline Solids Amorphous Solids
* Shape* Melting point*Cleavage property* Heat ofusion*Anisotropy* Nature* Order inthearrangementof constituent particlesExamplesDefinite characteristic shape.Melt at a sharp and characteristictemperatureWhen cut with a sharpedged tool,they split into two pieces and thenewly generated surfaces are plane and smooth.They have a definite andcharacteristic heat of fusion.They are anisotropic in nature.True-solidsThey have long range order.All solid elements and solidcompds : eg. Cu, Al, NaCl, Sugar etc.Irregular shapeGradually soften over arange of temperatureWhen cut with a sharpedged tool, they cut intotwo pieces with Irregular surfaces.They do not have definiteheat of fusion.Isotropic in nature.Pseudo solids or supecooled liquidsThey have only short rangeorder.Glass, plastics, Rubber,charcoal, lamp black etc.
2.Classification of solids on the basis of different binding forces.
1
 
Type osolidConstituent particles Nature of  bondExamplesPhysical NatureElectricalConductivityMelting point1.Molecular Solids(i) NonPolar (ii) Polar (iii)Hydrogen bonded Non polar moleculesPolar moleculesH-bondedmoleculesDispersionor LondonforcesDipole-dipoleforceHydrogen bondingAr., CCl
4
,H
2
, SolidCO
2
, I
2
HCl, HBr,SO
2
H
2
o (ice) NH
3
(S)HF (S)SoftSoftHardInsulator Insulator Insulator VerylowLowLow2. IonicSolidsIons Coulomicforces NaCl, Mgo,ZnS, CaF
2
Hard but brittleInsulator insolid state butconductors inmolten stateand aqueousstateHigh3. MetallicsolidsPositiveions in asea odelocalizedelectronsMetallic bonding.Fe, Cu, Ag,MgHard butmalleableandductileConductor insolid as wellas in moltenstate.Fairlyhigh.4. Covalentor NetworsolidsAtomsCovalent bondingSiO
2
(quartz)SiC ; C(diamond)graphiteHardSoftInsulator Conductor (exception)Veryhigh
3.*Some Important Terminology.
*
Space lattice/Crystal lattice :
A well defined ordered and regular arrangement of atoms, molecules or ions in the three dimensionalspace is called crystal or space lattice. There are fourteen types of space lattices possible, they are also called bravais lattices.*
Lattice Point :
The atoms, molecules or ions in a crystalline substanceare shown by points in its space lattice and are called lattice points.
2
 
*
Lattice Site :
The position occupied by a constituent particle in aspace lattice is called lattice site. Eg. Corner, Body centre, Face centreetc.*
Unit Cell :
The smallest part of the crystal lattice which whenrepeated over and over again produces the complete crystal is calledunit cell.4.
Calculation of number of atoms (z) per unit cell/rank of Unit Cellof a Cubic crystal system :
Unit CellNo. oatoms atcorners No. of atomsat face centres No.of atoms at bodycentreTotalPrimitive/SimpleCubic U.C.
8x1
/8 = 1001Body centeredCubic U.C.8
x
1/8=1012Face CentredCubic U.C.8x1/8=16x1/2=304
5.
 
Seven Primitive unit cells and their possible variations as centred unitcells:
CrystalSystemPossibleVariationsAxialdistances or EdgeLengthsAxial anglesExamples* CubicPrimitive,Bodya=b=c£=ß=γ=90
0
 NaCl, ZnS, Cu
3

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