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Catálogo de las lenguas indígenas nacionales: Variantes lingüísticas de México con sus autodenominaciones y referencias geoestadísticas

Catálogo de las lenguas indígenas nacionales: Variantes lingüísticas de México con sus autodenominaciones y referencias geoestadísticas

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Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas
http://www.inali.gob.mx/clin-inali/
Instituto Nacional de Lenguas Indígenas
http://www.inali.gob.mx/clin-inali/

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Published by: Colección Digital Juan Comas on Aug 09, 2012
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01/15/2013

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Lrdbp =1 ab bdbyj ab 9;;7 AEMYEJ JHE@EML '[yecbym Pb``eðd% 0=
EDPQEQRQJ DM@EJDML AB LBDORMP EDAEOBDMP
@MQMLJOJ ab lmp Lbdormp Edaãobdmp Dm`ejdmlbp6 Xmyemdqbp Ledoüãpqe`mp ab Cåwe`j `jd prp mrqjabdjcedm`ejdbpu ybhbybd`emp objbpqmaãpqe`mp$
 Ml cmyobd rd ljojqe{j, }rb ae`b6 Edpqeqrqj Dm`ejdml ab Lbdormp Edaãobdmp$
@MQÍLJOJ AB LMP LBDORMP EDAÃOBDMP DM@EJDMLBP6 XMYEMDQBP LEDOÜÃPQE@MP AB CÅWE@J @JD PRP MRQJABDJCEDM@EJDBP U YBHBYBD@EMP OBJBPQMAÃPQE@MP$
Bl @jdpbfj Dm`ejdml abl Edpqeqrqj Dm`ejdml ab Lbdormp Edaãobdmp, `jd hrdamcbdqj bd lj aep{rbpqj {jy ljpmyqã`rljp 9j$ ab lm
@jdpqeqr`eðd [jlãqe`m ab ljp Bpqmajp Rdeajp Cbe`mdjp
> =2, =8, 9; u qby`byj qymdpeqjyej ablm
Lbu Obdbyml ab Abyb`gjp Ledoüãpqe`jp ab ljp [rbiljp Edaãobdmp
> =j$, 0j$ u 12 ab lm
Lbu Jyoíde`m ab lm Macedepqym`eðd [öile`m Hbabyml 
> =j$, 9j$ u == ab lm Lbu Hbabyml ab lmp Bdqeamabp [mymbpqmqmlbp> u ljp myqã`rljp=j$ u =; hym``eðd EE abl Bpqmqrqj Jyoíde`j abl Edpqeqrqj Dm`ejdml ab Lbdormp Edaãobdmp> u
@JDPEABYMDAJ
]rb {jy ab`ybqj {rile`maj bd bl
Aemyej Jhe`eml ab lm Hbabym`eðd
bl =1 ab mojpqj ab 9;;=, pb ybhjycð umae`ejdð lm
@jdpqeqr`eðd [jlãqe`m ab ljp Bpqmajp Rdeajp Cbe`mdjp
, abqbycedmdaj bl `myí`qby öde`j bedaexepeilb ab lm Dm`eðd Cbe`mdm u pr `jc{jpe`eðd {lrye`rlqryml prpqbdqmam bd prp {rbiljp edaãobdmp$]rb `jd bpqm ybhjycm `jdpqeqr`ejdml drbpqym @myqm Cmodm ybmheycm pr `myí`qby pj`eml, ml abae`my rdmyqã`rlj bp{b`ãhe`j ml yb`jdj`ecebdqj ab ljp abyb`gjp ab ljp {rbiljp edaãobdmp$]rb bl myqã`rlj 9j$ `jdpqeqr`ejdml bpqmilb`b }rb “ljp {rbiljp edaãobdmp pjd m}rblljp }rb abp`ebdabd ab{jilm`ejdbp }rb gmieqmimd bd bl qbyyeqjyej m`qrml abl {mãp ml ede`emypb lm `jljdevm`eðd u }rb `jdpbyxmd prp{yj{emp edpqeqr`ejdbp pj`emlbp, b`jdðce`mp, `rlqrymlbp u {jlãqe`mp, j {myqb ab bllmp$–]rb rdj ab ljp abyb`gjp ab ljp {rbiljp u lmp `jcrdeamabp edaãobdmp }rb yb`jdj`b bl m{myqmaj “M– ablmyqã`rlj 9j$ ab drbpqym Lbu Pr{ybcm bp bl ab lm leiyb abqbycedm`eðd u, bd `jdpb`rbd`em, bl ab lm mrqjdjcãm{mym {ybpbyxmy u bdye}rb`by prp lbdormp, `jdj`ecebdqjp u qjajp ljp blbcbdqjp }rb `jdpqeqrubd pr `rlqrym beabdqeama$]rb bl myqã`rlj 9j$ abqbycedm }rb bd qjajp ljp fre`ejp u {yj`baecebdqjp bd }rb pbmd {myqb ljp {rbiljpedaãobdmp j prp edqboymdqbp pb abib omymdqevmy bl m``bpj {lbdj m lm fryepae``eðd abl Bpqmaj u, {mym qml hed, pbabibd qjcmy bd `rbdqm lmp `jpqrciybp u bp{b`ehe`eamabp `rlqrymlbp ab ae`gjp {rbiljp, `jdpeabymdaj, bdqybjqyjp, bl abyb`gj m pby mpepqeajp {jy edqåy{ybqbp u abhbdpjybp }rb qbdomd `jdj`ecebdqj ab pr lbdorm u `rlqrym$]rb lm
@jdxbd`eðd Mcbye`mdm ab Abyb`gjp Grcmdjp
, prp`yeqm bd @jpqm Ye`m bd =585, ab lm `rml blBpqmaj cbe`mdj bp {myqb abpab bl mýj =579, pbýmlm bl `jc{yjcepj ab ljp bpqmajp {myqb m ybp{bqmy ljpabyb`gjp u leibyqmabp yb`jdj`eajp bd åpqm u m omymdqevmy pr leiyb u {lbdj bfby`e`ej m qjam {bypjdm prfbqm m pr fryepae``eðd, ped aep`yecedm`eðd mlordm {jy cjqexjp ab ymvm, `jljy, pbj, eaejcm j ybleoeðd, u }rb lm cepcmbpqmilb`b bl abyb`gj ledoüãpqe`j ab lmp {bypjdmp {mym pby mpepqeajp {jy edqåy{ybqbp bd ljp fre`ejp bd ljp }rbpbmd {myqb$]rb bl
@jdxbdej =85 pjiyb [rbiljp Edaãobdmp u Qyeimlbp bd [mãpbp Edab{bdaebdqbp
, maj{qmaj bl 9? ab frdej ab =575 {jy lm @jdhbybd`em Obdbyml ab lm Jyomdevm`eðd Edqbydm`ejdml abl Qymimfj, bd pr pb{qrmoåpecmpbqm ybrdeðd, bpqmilb`b }rb ljp ojiebydjp abibd mprcey lm ybp{jdpmieleama ab abpmyyjllmy, `jd lm{myqe`e{m`eðd ab ljp {rbiljp edaãobdmp edqbybpmajp, rdm m``eðd `jjyaedmam u pepqbcíqe`m {mym {yjqboby ljpabyb`gjp ab ljp {rbiljp edaãobdmp u omymdqevmy bl ybp{bqj m pr edqboyeama> u }rb ljp ojiebydjp ab ljp {mãpbp}rb lj ymqehe}rbd abibd qjcmy lmp cbaeamp db`bpmyemp {mym mpborymy }rb ljp edaexearjp ab bpqjp {rbiljpqbdomd lm j{jyqrdeama ab lbby u bp`yeiey bd pr lbdorm cmqbydm, j lm ab pr `jcrdeama u lm j{jyqrdeama ab llbomy m ajcedmy lm lbdorm dm`ejdml j rdm ab lmp lbdormp jhe`emlbp abl {mãp$]rb m qymxåp ab ljp
 M`rbyajp ab Pmd Mdayåp
, prp`yeqjp bd =558, bl Ojiebydj Hbabyml pb `jc{yjcbqeð momymdqevmy m ljp {rbiljp edaãobdmp cbfjybp dexblbp ab iebdbpqmy, abpmyyjllj u frpqe`em, abpqbyymdaj`jc{jyqmcebdqjp ab aep`yecedm`eðd, `jcimqebdaj mpã lm {jiybvm u lm cmyoedm`eðd ab åpqjp, bpqmilb`eådajpb}rb {mym ml`mdvmy lm bhb`qexeama ab ljp abyb`gjp pj`emlbp, b`jdðce`jp, `rlqrymlbp u {jlãqe`jp ab ljp {rbiljpedaãobdmp bl Bpqmaj abibyãm omymdqevmy bl m``bpj {lbdj m lm frpqe`em, yb`jdj`ebdaj u ybp{bqmdaj lmpbp{b`ehe`eamabp `rlqrymlbp, ec{rlpmdaj {jlãqe`mp `rlqrymlbp }rb blecedbd lmp ed`jc{ybdpejdbp uaep`yecedm`ejdbp gm`em ljp edaãobdmp$ ]rb bd ljp cepcjp M`rbyajp pb bpqmilb`b }rb abibd {yjcjxbypbu abpmyyjllmypb lmp lbdormp u `rlqrymp edaãobdmp, {jy lj }rb pb abib abpqm`my pr `jdj`ecebdqj u ybp{bqj ml`jdqmy lmp lbdormp edaãobdmp `jd bl cepcj xmljy pj`eml }rb bl bp{mýjl 'mpã llmcmaj {jy lm `jcrdeamam`maåce`m eiåye`m, u `mpqbllmdj, {jy lm
@jdpqeqr`eðd Bp{mýjlm
ab =5?7%$ Mpã cepcj, pb abib {yj{e`emy lmbar`m`eðd edqboyml bd lbdormp edaãobdmp, mpã `jcj lm bdpbýmdvm u lm lb`qj#bp`yeqrym ab lmp cepcmp,bpqmilb`ebdaj {yjoymcmp bar`mqexjp {lrye`rlqrymlbp m qjajp ljp dexblbp, pebdaj lm m``eðd bar`mqexm blcb`mdepcj {mym mpborymy bl rpj u abpmyyjllj ab lmp lbdormp edaãobdmp$]rb bd ljp Hjyjp ab @jdprlqm pjiyb Abyb`gjp Ledoüãpqe`jp ab ljp [rbiljp Edaãobdmp, ybmlevmajp {jy lmp@jcepejdbp Rdeamp ab Mprdqjp Edaãobdmp u ab Bar`m`eðd [öile`m u Pbyxe`ejp Bar`mqexjp ab lm @ícmym abAe{rqmajp bd aexbypmp bdqeamabp hbabymqexmp, pb `jd`lruð }rb bd lm
Lbu Obdbyml ab Abyb`gjp Ledoüãpqe`jpab ljp [rbiljp Edaãobdmp
pb bpqmilb`ebym `jcj jileom`eðd abl Edpqeqrqj Dm`ejdml ab Lbdormp Edaãobdmp 'EDMLE%
 
09 '[yecbym Pb``eðd% AEMYEJ JHE@EML Lrdbp =1 ab bdbyj ab 9;;7
ybmlevmy rd `mqíljoj ab lbdormp edaãobdmp> }rb åpqmp abibyãmd pby ab`lmymamp lbdormp dm`ejdmlbp u jhe`emlbpbd lmp yboejdbp ajdab lm {jilm`eðd edaãobdm hrbym cmujyeqmyem> }rb bp hrdamcbdqml bl yb`jdj`ecebdqj fryãae`jab qjamp lmp lbdormp edaãobdmp }rb pb gmilmd bd bl qbyyeqjyej dm`ejdml> }rb bd ljp pbyxe`ejp cåae`jp }rb jhyb`bbl Bpqmaj m lm {jilm`eðd edaãobdm pb rqele`b lm xmyemdqb ledoüãpqe`m `jyybp{jdaebdqb m `mam yboeðd> }rb ljpabyb`gjp ledoüãpqe`jp abibd pby `m{m`bp ab amy `mieam m ae`gmp aehbybd`emp aemlb`qmlbp u m lm aep`jdqedreamaobjoyíhe`m ped }rb åpqmp pbmd rd jipqí`rlj {mym pr `jgbpeðd> u }rb bd lm macedepqym`eðd {öile`m u bd ljpbp{m`ejp {öile`jp ab lmp yboejdbp edaãobdmp pbmd rqelevmamp jileomqjyemcbdqb lmp xmyemdqbp ledoüãpqe`mp lj`mlbp$]rb `jd hb`gm =0 ab cmyvj ab 9;;0 pb {rile`ð bd bl
Aemyej Jhe`eml ab lm Hbabym`eðd lm Lbu Obdbyml abAbyb`gjp Ledoüãpqe`jp ab ljp [rbiljp Edaãobdmp
, bd lm }rb pb yb`jdj`bd u {yjqbobd ljp abyb`gjp ledoüãpqe`jp,edaexearmlbp u `jlb`qexjp ab ljp {rbiljp u `jcrdeamabp edaãobdmp, u bd lm }rb pb ybhebyb lm {yjcj`eðd abl rpju abpmyyjllj ab lmp lbdormp edaãobdmp, bdqbdaeamp åpqmp `jcj “m}rbllmp }rb {yj`babd ab ljp {rbiljpbepqbdqbp bd bl qbyyeqjyej dm`ejdml mdqbp abl bpqmilb`ecebdqj abl Bpqmaj Cbe`mdj, mabcíp ab m}rbllmp{yjxbdebdqbp ab jqyjp {rbiljp edajmcbye`mdjp, eormlcbdqb {ybbepqbdqbp }rb pb gmd myymeomaj bd bl qbyyeqjyejdm`ejdml `jd {jpqbyejyeama–$]rb `jd ae`gm
Lbu 
, m pr xbv, pb `ybm bl EDMLE `jcj rd jyomdepcj abp`bdqymlevmaj `jd {bypjdmleama fryãae`m u {mqyecjdej {yj{ej, `jd bl jifbqj ab {yjcjxby bl hjyqmlb`ecebdqj, lm {ybpbyxm`eðd u bl abpmyyjllj ab lmplbdormp edaãobdmp }rb pb gmilmd bd bl qbyyeqjyej dm`ejdml, u bl `jdj`ecebdqj u aephyrqb ab lm ye}rbvm `rlqryml ablm Dm`eðd> u ab mpbpjymy m ljp qybp ðyabdbp ab Ojiebydj {mym myqe`rlmy lmp {jlãqe`mp {öile`mp db`bpmyemp bd lmcmqbyem$]rb bl EDMLE qebdb bdqyb prp mqyeir`ejdbp lm ab aepbýmy bpqymqboemp b edpqyrcbdqjp {mym bl abpmyyjllj ab lmplbdormp edaãobdmp dm`ejdmlbp, bd `jjyaedm`eðd `jd ljp qybp ðyabdbp ab ojiebydj u ljp {rbiljp u `jcrdeamabpedaãobdmp$]rb bd qåycedjp ab lm {yj{em
Lbu Obdbyml ab Abyb`gjp Ledoüãpqe`jp ab ljp [rbiljp Edaãobdmp
, lmmacedepqym`eðd abl EDMLE bpqí m `myoj ab rd @jdpbfj Dm`ejdml, `jcj ðyomdj `jlb`qexj ab ojiebydj, u rdAeyb`qjy Obdbyml, `jcj ybp{jdpmilb abl hrd`ejdmcebdqj abl {yj{ej Edpqeqrqj, u }rb ae`gj @jdpbfj Dm`ejdml,{ybxem `jdprlqm m ljp bpqraejp {myqe`rlmybp ab ljp Edpqeqrqjp Dm`ejdml ab Mdqyj{jljoãm b Gepqjyem 'EDMG% uDm`ejdml ab Bpqmaãpqe`m, Objoymhãm b Edhjycíqe`m 'EDBOE%, m {yj{rbpqm `jdfrdqm ab ljp yb{ybpbdqmdqbp ab ljp{rbiljp u `jcrdeamabp edaãobdmp u ab lmp edpqeqr`ejdbp m`maåce`mp }rb hjycbd {myqb abl {yj{ej @jdpbfj,abib blmijymy bl
 MQÍLJOJ 
 
AB LMP 
 
L
BDORMP 
DAÃOBDMP 
abdqyj abl {lmvj ab rd mýj peorebdqb m lm hb`gm bd }rb}rbab `jdpqeqreaj ae`gj @jdpbfj$]rb `jd hb`gm = ab pb{qebciyb ab 9;;8, pb {rile`ð bd bl Aemyej Jhe`eml ab lm Hbabym`eðd bl BpqmqrqjJyoíde`j abl EDMLE, bd bl }rb pb bpqmilb`bd lmp impbp ab jyomdevm`eðd abl @jdpbfj Dm`ejdml abl EDMLE, mpã`jcj lm bpqyr`qrym iípe`m, lmp hm`rlqmabp u hrd`ejdbp abl EDMLE, u }rb ab m`rbyaj `jd ae`gj Bpqmqrqj bl@jdpbfj Dm`ejdml }rbað edpqmlmaj `jd prp drbxjp edqboymdqbp bd lm [yecbym Pbpeðd ab 9;;8$]rb cbaemdqb bl cepcj ab`ybqj bd bl }rb pb {yjcrloð lm
Lbu Obdbyml ab Abyb`gjp Ledoüãpqe`jp ab ljp[rbiljp Edaãobdmp
, pb ybhjycð lm hym``eðd EX abl myqã`rlj ?j$ ab lm
Lbu Obdbyml ab Bar`m`eðd
, `jd bl hed abbpqmilb`by }rb lm bar`m`eðd bp`jlmy abib {yjcjxby bl `jdj`ecebdqj ab lm {lrymleama ledoüãpqe`m ab lm Dm`eðd ubl ybp{bqj m ljp abyb`gjp ledoüãpqe`jp ab ljp {rbiljp edaãobdmp, u }rb ljp gmilmdqbp ab lbdormp edaãobdmpabibd qbdby m``bpj m lm bar`m`eðd jileomqjyem bd pr {yj{em lbdorm u bp{mýjl$]rb `jd hb`gm =7 ab bdbyj ab 9;;2 bl EDMLE pjle`eqð ml EDBOE u ml EDMG, mpã `jcj ml @bdqyj abEdxbpqeom`ejdbp u Bpqraejp Pr{byejybp bd Mdqyj{jljoãm Pj`eml u m lm Rdexbypeama ab ]redqmdm Yjj, bd pr`mleama ab cebciyjp abl @jdpbfj Dm`ejdml }rb bd bpb bdqjd`bp qbdãmd, edhjycmymd pjiyb lm ybmlevm`eðd abbpqraejp {myqe`rlmybp {yj{ejp {mym lm blmijym`eðd ab rd `mqíljoj ab lbdormp edaãobdmp> u }rb ae`gmpedpqeqr`ejdbp aebyjd m `jdj`by ml EDMLE ljp mxmd`bp `jd ljp }rb `jdqmimd bd lm cmqbyem$]rb bd lm {yecbym pbpeðd jyaedmyem ab 9;;2, bl @jdpbfj Dm`ejdml abl EDMLE aej pr `jdhjyceama {mym }rbbpqb ölqecj {ybpbdqmym rd {yjub`qj ab
 MQÍLJOJ AB LMP 
L
BDORMP 
DAÃOBDMP 
`jd bl {yj{ðpeqj ab amy `rc{lecebdqj m lm jileom`eðd bpqmilb`eam bd lm
Lbu Obdbyml ab Abyb`gjp Ledoüãpqe`jp ab ljp [rbiljpEdaãobdmp
$]rb bdqyb lmp mqyeir`ejdbp abl EDMLE bpqí lm ab ybmlevmy edxbpqeom`eðd iípe`m u m{le`mam {mym cmujy `jdj`ecebdqj ab lmp lbdormp edaãobdmp dm`ejdmlbp u {yjcjxby pr aehrpeðd, mpã `jcj ybmlevmy edxbpqeom`ejdbp{mym `jdj`by lm aexbypeama ab lmp lbdormp edaãobdmp dm`ejdmlbp> }rb bdqyb ae`gmp edxbpqeom`ejdbp `mib lmblmijym`eðd u lm m`qrmlevm`eðd abl
 MQÍLJOJ AB LMP 
L
BDORMP 
DAÃOBDMP 
}rb abib {rile`mypb bd bl
Aemyej Jhe`eml ab lm Hbabym`eðd
$]rb bd bl mýj 9;;2 bl EDMLE {rile`ð bl
@mqíljoj ab lbdormp edaãobdmp dm`ejdmlbp6 @myqjoymhãm`jdqbc{jyídbm ab prp mpbdqmcebdqjp gepqðye`jp
, jiym ajdab pb bpqmilb`b lm qbyyeqjyemleama ab lmpmoyr{m`ejdbp ledoüãpqe`mp ab ljp {rbiljp jyeoedmyejp ab lj }rb gju bp bl qbyyeqjyej dm`ejdml, `jcj lm {yecbym ablmp ajp hmpbp `jdpeabymamp {mym `rc{ley `jd bl cmdamqj yblmqexj m lm blmijym`eðd abl
 MQÍLJOJ AB LMP 
L
BDORMP 
DAÃOBDMP 
u }rb lm pbordam ab bpqmp hmpbp bp lm {ybpbdqb jiym, bd ajdab pb eabdqehe`md, ab cmdbym`jc{lbcbdqmyem u, bdqyb jqyjp mp{b`qjp, lmp xmyemdqbp ledoüãpqe`mp `jyybp{jdaebdqbp qmdqj m lmp moyr{m`ejdbpledoüãpqe`mp mdqbae`gmp, `jcj m lmp moyr{m`ejdbp ab jqyjp {rbiljp edajmcbye`mdjp myymeomajp bd qbyyeqjyejdm`ejdml$
 
Lrdbp =1 ab bdbyj ab 9;;7 AEMYEJ JHE@EML '[yecbym Pb``eðd% 00
]rb bl EDMLE gm obdbymaj m`qrmlevm`ejdbp m lm `mqmljom`eðd ab lmp lbdormp edaãobdmp ybmlevmam u{rile`mam {jy ål cepcj bd 9;;2, abyexmamp ab lm mqbd`eðd bp{b`eml amam m lm aexbypeama ab lmp moyr{m`ejdbpledoüãpqe`mp bd lm pbordam hmpb ab blmijym`eðd ab ae`gj
 MQÍLJOJ 
> u }rb, ab `jdhjyceama `jd lmp mqyeir`ejdbpybhbyeamp, gm `jdpeabymaj lm ed`jy{jym`eðd ab qmlbp m`qrmlevm`ejdbp m lm {ybpbdqb jiym$]rb dj jipqmdqb }rb aexbypmp ab{bdabd`emp u bdqeamabp abl pb`qjy {öile`j b edpqeqr`ejdbp {yexmamp gmdobdbymaj u aehrdaeaj, cbaemdqb aexbypmp {rile`m`ejdbp, `jdj`ecebdqjp pjiyb lm `mqmljom`eðd ab lbdormpedaãobdmp ab Cåe`j, dj gm bepqeaj {mym bpqjp `mpjp bl yb`jdj`ecebdqj lboml {mym }rb lmp lbdormp`mqmljomamp bd ae`gmp jiymp qbdomd bl `myí`qby ab
L
BDORMP
D
M@EJDMLBP
`jd lm cepcm xmleabv }rb bl bp{mýjlbd prp qbyyeqjyejp, lj`mlevm`eðd u `jdqbqj bd }rb pb gmilbd$]rb bl
 MQÍLJOJ 
abib prpqbdqmypb {yed`e{mlcbdqb bd `jdj`ecebdqjp pjiyb lmp bpqyr`qrymp ledoüãpqe`mp u lmedqbyab{bdabd`em ab åpqmp `jd bl `jc{jyqmcebdqj pj`ejledoüãpqe`j ab prp rprmyejp> mpã `jcj pjiyb lmpyblm`ejdbp obdbmlðoe`mp, rdeama u aexbypeama ab lmp xmyemdqbp ledoüãpqe`mp bd yblm`eðd `jd pr `jibyqrymqbyyeqjyeml gepqðye`m bd ljp dexblbp bpqmqml, crde`e{ml u ab lj`mleama$]rb bl yb`jdj`ecebdqj oribydmcbdqml ab lmp lbdormp edaãobdmp, `jdpeabymdaj {mym bllmp rd bpqmqrp jhe`eml,mpã `jcj lm b}reama ybp{b`qj abl bp{mýjl, gm peaj rdm abcmdam ab ljp {rbiljp u `jcrdeamabp edaãobdmp abdrbpqyj {mãp$]rb lmp m`mabcemp ab lbdormp edaãobdmp qebdbd rd {m{bl prcmcbdqb ec{jyqmdqb bd ljp {yj`bpjp`jd`jceqmdqbp ml yb`jdj`ecebdqj mdqbp ybhbyeaj$]rb bd lm
Ab`lmym`eðd ab [íqv`rmyj pjiyb bl Abyb`gj m lm Lbdorm, maj{qmam bd frlej ab =57;, bd lmAb`lmym`eðd Rdexbypml ab Abyb`gjp Ledoüãpqe`jp
, prp`yeqm bd Imy`bljdm, Bp{mým, bd frdej ab =558, mpã `jcjbd lm
Ab`lmym`eðd ab Qjqjde`m{íd “Mayeíd Edåp @gíxbv– pjiyb bl 
 
Abyb`gj ab ljp [rbiljp m lm Lbdorm
, prp`yeqmbd Qjqjde`m{íd, Ormqbcmlm, bd j`qriyb ab 9;;9, pb yb`jdj`b bl abyb`gj ab qjamp lmp {bypjdmp m b{ybpmypbbd pr lbdorm cmqbydm, u lm db`bpeama ab ed`jy{jymy lmp lbdormp cmqbydmp bd ljp pepqbcmp djycmqexjp u `jcjxbgã`rlj {mym lm bar`m`eðd bp`jlmyevmam$]rb lm ed`jy{jym`eðd ab lmp lbdormp cmqbydmp, bd {myqe`rlmy lmp ab ljp {rbiljp edaãobdmp, bd ljp pepqbcmporibydmcbdqmlbp djycmqexj#macedepqymqexjp, bar`mqexjp, ab frpqe`em, ab pmlra, bdqyb jqyjp, yb}rebyb ab rd{yj`bpj ab djycmlevm`eðd ledoüãpqe`m ab qjamp u `mam rdm ab bllmp, bl `rml abib prpqbdqmypb, bdqyb jqyjpblbcbdqjp, bd lm `mqmljom`eðd ledoüãpqe`m$]rb bl
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{yj{jy`ejdm edhjycm`eðd db`bpmyem {mym abpmyyjllmy bpqraejp ab aehbybdqbp aep`e{ledmpm`maåce`mp, u {mym hmxjyb`by bl `rc{lecebdqj ab ljp abyb`gjp ledoüãpqe`jp ab ljp gmilmdqbp ab lmp lbdormpedaãobdmp omymdqevmajp {jy bl Bpqmaj bd ljp pepqbcmp bar`mqexjp, ab macedepqym`eðd b ec{myqe`eðd ab frpqe`em uabcíp bp`bdmyejp$]rb ljp ybprlqmajp ab lm `mqmljom`eðd ledoüãpqe`m qmcieåd yb{ybpbdqmd {mym bl Bpqmaj edhjycm`eðd pjiyb lmpeqrm`eðd pj`ej`rlqryml ab rdm {myqb ab lm {jilm`eðd dm`ejdml, mpã `jcj amqjp pj`ej`rlqrymlbp {byqedbdqbp }rblb {byceqeyíd bxmlrmy bhb`qjp ab mlordmp ab lmp m``ejdbp oribydmcbdqmlbp u lb jyebdqmyíd bd lm qjcm abab`epejdbp ab ljp dexblbp ab ojiebydj hbabyml, bpqmqml u crde`e{ml, qj`mdqbp ml `rc{lecebdqj ab lmp cbqmpdm`ejdmlbp ab abpmyyjllj u ljp `jc{yjcepjp ab mqbd`eðd edqbydm`ejdmlbp yblmqexjp m lm {jilm`eðd gmilmdqb ablbdorm edaãobdm$]rb bp db`bpmyej {yjcjxby bdqyb qjam lm {jilm`eðd dm`ejdml bl `jdj`ecebdqj pjiyb lm aexbypeama ledoüãpqe`mab ljp {rbiljp edaãobdmp myymeomajp bd lj }rb gju bp bl qbyyeqjyej dm`ejdml$]rb bp db`bpmyej llbxmy m `mij edxbpqeom`ejdbp crlqeaep`e{ledmyemp {mym `jdj`by lm `jyybp{jdabd`embepqbdqb bdqyb ljp {rbiljp edaãobdmp u pr ybp{b`qexm aexbypeama ledoüãpqe`m, `jcj aehrdaey ljp ybprlqmajp abae`gmp edxbpqeom`ejdbp bdqyb qjam lm {jilm`eðd dm`ejdml$]rb, bd obdbyml, hrbym ab prp ybp{b`qexjp ícieqjp `rlqrymlbp, pb abp`jdj`bd lmp
mrqjabdjcedm`ejdbp
jb{ybpejdbp `jd lmp `rmlbp ljp gmilmdqbp ab lbdormp edaãobdmp djciymd m åpqmp bd pr {yj{em xmyemdqbledoüãpqe`m> u }rb bl `jdj`ecebdqj, yb`jdj`ecebdqj u aehrpeðd ab ae`gmp mrqjabdjcedm`ejdbp bp rdm ab lmphjycmp ab ybexedae`my m ljp {rbiljp, lmp `jcrdeamabp u lmp cepcmp lbdormp edaãobdmp, um }rb lm abdjcedm`eðd`jcödcbdqb rqelevmam {mym abpeodmy m lmp lbdormp edaãobdmp `jyybp{jdab, ml djciyb }rb gepqðye`mcbdqb gmyb`eieaj ab cmdbym bðobdm bl ybp{b`qexj {rbilj edaãobdm }rb lmp gmilm$]rb lm aexbypeama ledoüãpqe`m eabdqehe`mam ml edqbyejy ab rd {rbilj edaãobdm bd drbpqyj {mãp dj gm peodehe`majde mdqbp de mgjym, de abib peodehe`my, rdm hymocbdqm`eðd åqde`m, u }rb, bd `mciej, lmp aepqedqmp hjycmp ab gmilmy abdqyj ab rd cepcj {rbilj edaãobdm pjd cmdehbpqm`ejdbp ab pr ye}rbvm `rlqryml$]rb {mym mxmdvmy bd lm `jdpqyr``eðd ab rdm pj`ebama eormleqmyem, b}reqmqexm u dj aep`yecedmqjyem bpdb`bpmyej ed`lrey u hjcbdqmy ljp bdhj}rbp abl crlqeledoüepcj u ab lm edqby`rlqrymleama bd lmp yblm`ejdbp bdqyb blBpqmaj u lm pj`ebama dm`ejdml, `jdhjycmam åpqm {jy lm {jilm`eðd gmilmdqb ab lbdormp edaãobdmp u lm {jilm`eðdgep{mdjgmilmdqb$]rb lm {jilm`eðd dm`ejdml abib {myqe`e{my bd lm {yí`qe`m u bl hjyqmlb`ecebdqj ab lm edqby`rlqrymleama, bd blyb`jdj`ecebdqj ab lm ye}rbvm `rlqryml abl {mãp u bd bl bhb`qexj bfby`e`ej ab ljp abyb`gjp ledoüãpqe`jp edaexearmlbpu `jlb`qexjp ab ljp {rbiljp edaãobdmp$

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