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A Comparative Study of Public and Private Schools

A Comparative Study of Public and Private Schools

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NTERDISCIPLINARY
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OURNAL
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ESEARCH
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USINESS
 
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Institute of Interdisciplinary Business Research
 
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A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PUBLIC AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS
HEADTEACHERS’
VISION FOR SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT
Muhammad Naeem Tariq*, Stephen John*, Muhammad Sohail Ishaque*Dr. Ghulam Muhammad Burfat**
(Assistant Professor)
*The writers are the research scholars at Karachi, Hamdard and Iqra University, Pakistan**The writer is Assistant Professor in Department of Sociology, University of Karachi,Pakistan
Abstract
This paper focues on
comparative study of public and private schools headteachers’ vision
for school improvement. It includes literature review on the areas of paper. Data collection,methodology, analysis and discussion is also done. Conclusion are drawn at the end.Keywords: COMPARATIVE STUDY ; PUBLIC ; PRIVATE SCHOOLSHEADTEACHERS; VISION ; SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT
Introduction
The education system of Pakistan is mainly measuring learning by conductingexamination. The quality of education tends to be evaluated in terms of number of studentspassing in examination. Educators and general public have time again and expressed concern
over factors that influence students’ performance in e
xaminations. The most outstandingfactor has to do with the organizational management of the schools (Weindling, 1993). Theyhave also mentioned that to improve students performance headteachers are required to firstimprove the management of the schools. This can be done by setting a clear vision for theschools and communicate this vision to the students, support its achievements by givinginstructional leadership, provision of resources and being visible in every part of theinstitution.Lack of vision in management of the schools often leads to imbalance in theallocation and use of resources. It is pointed out by the writers i.e. (Pigors, 1992) that poorresults in education are related to the resources allocated to it. If this parameter is notrecognized, it becomes very difficult to understand why a school is continuously performingpoorly. According to (Leithwood K. & Riel C, 2003), when the headteacher is keen onacademic achievement and is prepared to provide effective leadership, the schools are having
 
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good academic results. It is therefore evident that the headteacher who properly exerciseshis/her leadership responsibility will enable his or her school to realize good academicachievement.
 
“The basic cause of inefficiency of any institution is lac
k in administration andincompetency of its head, if the principal or HT is man of principles, hardworking and honest
then one will demand the same from one’s teachers, and if the head himself is idle and shirk 
-worker then its team-mates will also be like
him” (Riaz, 2012 p. 8)
12
.
“School improvement has always been a process that is lead from the front; leadingrequires clarity of future expectation, and the roles and responsibilities of individuals’
(Mithani and Khan, 2010, p.230). It may be emerged from the above statement thatchallenges in school improvement and role of the HTs are strongly interlinked to each other.
So it is true that in the absence of one other cannot survive. Also “there is dire need totransform most schools” ( Retallick and Farah,
2005).There are variety of elements play their role in school improvement; however the roleof HTs is prime one as they are to act as bridge in between school and community. The headshave to work with teachers to strengthen their skills and coordinate with students, teachers,
 parents and community members regarding common goal to improve students’ performance
(Lashway, 2003). The basic factors concerned with the role of HTs in school improvementare:a.
 
Professionalismb.
 
Leadership stylesc.
 
Management of Resourcesd.
 
Development of Resourcese.
 
Parents-School Co-operationHowever, for a successful school, effectiveness is not compromised over school
improvement. “Effectiveness is a measuring tool between Educational outcomes andEducational objectives” (Levacic, 1989
, p. 81). Successful schools are those where the
“outcomes are more favorable when there is a combination of firm leadership with a
decision-
making process in which all teachers feel that their views are represented”
12
Professor Dr Mahnazir Riaz (Psychologist), presently acting as Dean at Frontier Women University,Peshawar, and she has produced 13 PhDs and 11 MPhils
 
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(Reynolds, 1992 pp.9). “Teamwork and co
hesion among the staff, building trust and qualityrelationship, shared decision making, empowerment, and positive community involvement
in the school make a school successful” (Retallick and Farah, 2005, p.191).
 
A naval term is generally used “No wind blows in favour of that ship which doesn’thas its port of destination” I think the same accurately does fit here with the clarity of vision
of HT. It has been quoted by number of scholars that the behavior of head reflects his/her
vision. The head’s behavio
r and activities directly affect school processes and schools
outcomes, whereas MacBeath (1998) calls “HT as a vision builder”.
 Due to criticism of past, emerging visions 
of education and leadership for tomorrow’s
school, the dialectic era of school admini
stration is beginning to crystallize. “Among the
latest themes the administrator is called a philosopher or manager of virtue or scientificmanager or executive or transformational leader or instructional leader in a time of high
stakes accountability” (Th
omas, 1995).
One successful school adopted the slogan”We sink or swim together” as a part of theschool vision statement’ (Retallick 2009, p.191). They have a vision and development
committee with prime objective of monitoring on quarterly basis to keep the school focusedon excellence (p.197).Successful school improvement requires establishing a clear educational vision and ashared institutional mission, knowing how well the school is accomplishing that mission,identifying areas for improvement, developing plans to change educational activities and
 program, and implementing those plans or new program effectively. “Overall, the
organization defines the vision and aspiration for itself, vis-à-vis its schools, students,
teachers and HTs” (Brain, 1998. Cited
in Mithani & Khan, 2010).
Statement of the Problem
It has been highlighted by number of scholars that headteachers can play a vital rolein school improvement. But if we see the situation of schools in Pakistan we will find thateducational situation is becoming worsened day by day in all areas i.e. academic andadministrative moreover if we observe the students we will find that the knowledge of moralvalues is missing from their characters. The condition of the public schools is worsened thanprivate schools therefore; the present study was conducted to find out difference of the role

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