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The Collapse of the Soviet Union and Its Impact On

The Collapse of the Soviet Union and Its Impact On

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Published by: xaxif8265 on Aug 10, 2012
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03/10/2013

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THE COLLAPSE OF THE SOVIET UNION AND ITS IMPACT ONARAB WORLD
 
Dr. Walid Al ShunnaqAssistant Professor
 
Princess Alia University CollegeAl Balqa Applied UniversityJordan
 Abstract
This paper focus on collapse of the Soviet Union and its impact on Arab World. It alsocontains literature review related to collapse of the Soviet Union. Conclusion are alsodrawn on the basis of literature.
Keywords:
Collapse ; Soviet Union ; Impact ; Arab World
Introduction
The effects of the fall down of the USSR were felt throughout the world in manyaspects of peoples day to day life but it also impacted extremely upon Western countriesforeign policies in ways such as; security spending in key countries such as the USA wentdown in certain areas, the power vacuum left America as efficiently the police of theworld and also because a huge threat had been erased, many countries warmed up toformer enemies.The collapse of the Soviet Union showed the weaknesses in socialism and how it isessentially flawed as its principles go against human nature. This weakness in thecommunist leading system made the rest of the world identify the same weaknessesapplied to China and made the Chinese seem less impressive. This feeling of dominancefelt by the West (mainly in America) can be seen through the unexpected drop in tensionsbetween the west and China and how the west's approach to China became designate lesshard-line and almost accepted them as friends. Trade was initiated and the successes of such can be seen even today and this allowance by both the western governments and theChinese government to allow each other's products to enter their country even with therisk of spreading different ideological views shows just how small they thought the risk imposed by China was. This massive shift in world opinion and so inevitably indemocracies, government foreign policies shows the intercontinental impact of thecollapse of the USSR.
 
ijcrb.webs.com
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Over all, the change in foreign policy for western countries, especially America washuge. The collapse of the USSR was probably the biggest event in the second half of the20th century and political change from it was inevitable. Its impact on western countriesforeign policy therefore should not be underestimated as its affects are still seen today inplaces such as Iraq, as the Americans want to limit Nuclear weapons to reduce worldtension. The after-effects of such a catastrophic change in the world political climate issure to be felt for decades to come as it left, in my opinion, only one real super power.(Alex, Yi. 2007)
Arab Spring
 
With the events of the Arab Spring, now is a good time to take stock of some lessonslearned from 20 years of efforts to bring better human rights protections to former SovietUnion countries. Were our assumptions faulty? What could be done better, or differently,to promote human rights during tectonic societal shifts? Does the exercise have relevancebeyond the region, particularly given the upheaval in the Middle East and North Africa?The differences between 1991 and the 2011 Arab uprisings are vast, of course. But my20 years at Human Rights Watch have given me a few ideas about what has to happenafter the revolution to make change stick.(Denber, R. 2012)
 
The only thing the Arab Spring and the end of the USSR have in common is that theyhappened to involve large crowds," said Boris Kagarlitsky, a sociologist and formerSoviet dissident who was involved in the anti-Soviet protests. "It's like comparing apolitical rally with a football match, or the French Revolution with a rock festival - notparticularly productive."While the Arab uprisings are a genuinely popular movement, the revolution in the USSRwas carried out by the elites themselves, said Kagarlitsky. What is more, most of the massparticipation had ended well before the August coup. "Despite the collapse of the rulingCommunist party, no real revolution occurred in Russia in 1991," noted historian StephenCohen in a 1993 article for The Nation. The following year, only seven per cent of Russian respondents told a Levada poll that the fall of the USSR was a victory of democracy, with 53 per cent seeing it as "simply the outcome of a battle for power withinthe country's leadership".
 
(Nikitin, V. 2011)
 
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Peace Process in Arab World
 
Two events of cosmic significance enabled America to revive what hadeuphemistically come to be called the Middle East peace process: the end of the ColdWar and the end of the hot war in the Gulf. The collapse of the Soviet Union as asuperpower orphaned Moscow's former military clients - Syria, Iraq, Yemen, Libya andthe radical Palestinian factions - and pulled the rug from underneath the Arab rejectionfront that always opposed any peace settlement with Israel. Without Soviet arms suppliesand diplomatic backing, there was little the Arab radicals could do except sulk in theirtents. The collapse of the Soviet empire also meant that America no longer had tocontend with a credible rival in the Middle East. Soviet-American competition wasreplaced by Soviet-American cooperation, with America as the dominant power and theSoviet Union reduced almost to the level of an assistant. Once the Cold War ended, theMiddle East naturally ceased to be an arena for waging the Cold War. The ending of theglobal contest between the two principal protagonists thus, made possible, or at leastconceivable, the ending of the conflict between the Arabs and the Israelis.The Gulf War showed the extent to which the ground rules had changed following theend of the Cold War. The scenario that actually unfolded following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait would have been utterly inconceivable under conditions of intense Soviet-American competitiveness. Iraq's defeat in the Gulf War re-cast inter-Arab relations,dealing a further blow to the rejection front. Syria, once the standard-bearer of Arabrejectionist's and Moscow's closest Arab ally, joined in the American-led coalition againstIraq. The moderate, pro-American Saudi-Egyptian axis became more powerful within theArab world and more assertive in pushing for a strong American role. For all the Arabmembers, the hastily assembled alliance with America against the Iraqi dictator now heldlonger-term attractions. The war-time alliance laid the foundations for a peace-timealliance. Having followed America's lead in war, the Arabs were more willing than everbefore to follow her lead in peace? (Shlaim, A.1992)The Islamic nations of the world had considerable exposure during the Cold War toSoviet revolutionary warfare doctrine, which was standard curriculum material for anystudents sent to Soviet and other Warsaw Pact nation universities to gain freeundergraduate and postgraduate education. Suffice to say, classics like Lenin's

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