is the establishment, maintenance, acquisition andexpansion of coloniesin one territory by people from another territory.It is a process whereby themetropoleclaimssovereigntyover the
colony, and thesocial structure,government, andeconomicsof the
colony are changed by colonizers from the metropole. Colonialism is aset of unequal relationships between the metropole and the colony andbetween the colonists and theindigenous population.
was the era from the 1500s to, arguably,the 1990s when several European powers (particularly (but notexclusively) Spain, Portugal, Britain, the Netherlands and France)established colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. At first thecountries followedmercantilist policiesdesigned to strengthen thehome economy at the expense of rivals, so the colonies were usuallyallowed to trade only with the mother country. By the mid-19thcentury, however, the powerful British Empire gave up mercantilismand trade restrictions and introduced the principle of free trade, with few restrictions or tariffs.
defines colonialism as "the policy andpractice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples orareas."
offers four definitions,including "something characteristic of a colony" and "control by onepower over a dependent area or people."
"uses the term'colonialism' to describe the process of European settlement andpolitical control over the rest of the world, including Americas,Australia, and parts of Africa and Asia." It discusses the distinctionbetween colonialism and imperialism and states that "given thedifficulty of consistently distinguishing between the two terms, this entry will use colonialism as a broad conceptthat refers to the project of European political domination from the sixteenth to the twentieth centuries that endedwith the national liberation movements of the 1960s."
Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview
, Roger Tignor says, "For Osterhammel,the essence of colonialism is the existence of colonies, which are by definition governed differently from otherterritories such as protectorates or informal spheres of influence."
In the book, Osterhammel asks, "How can'colonialism' be defined independently from 'colony?'"
He settles on a three-sentence definition:Colonialism is a relationship between an indigenous (or forcibly imported) majority and a minority of foreigninvaders. The fundamental decisions affecting the lives of the colonized people are made and implemented bythe colonial rulers in pursuit of interests that are often defined in a distant metropolis. Rejecting culturalcompromises with the colonized population, the colonizers are convinced of their own superiority and theirordained mandate to rule.
ROOT EVILS OF AFRIKA'S DOWNFALL, Concepts in White World Terror Domination