During the Civil War, in keeping with this principle,
Congress set aside one million dollars to pay slave-owners
in compensation for abolishing slavery and freeing slaves within the District of Columbia. To show the North'strue colors regarding (former) slaves in America,$100,000 of this money was allocated for shipping thosemanumitted slaves back to Africa (or elsewhere)!In an
legislative Act, Congressprovided:
"That all persons held to service or labor withinthe District of Columbia by reason of African descent
are hereby discharged and freed of and from all claim
to such service or labor;and from and after thepassage of this act neither slavery nor involuntaryservitude, except for crime, whereof the party shall
be duly convicted, shall hereafter exist in said District."
This Act specifies that only persons held to(involuntary)
laborby reason of their Africandescent
were freed. Persons not of African descent heldto (temporary)
were left unaffected by this act.
referred to the many (white) persons who wereindentured at their own discretion for only a specifiedperiod of time (apprentices, immigrants). Only peopleof African descent were permanently held to
.Section 2 of this Act allowed (various) owners whoheld claims to such persons to present petitions to theUnited States for damages from their slaves being freedfrom such claims, which the United States would pay tothe owners in the
amount up to $300per slave (Section 3).
of the Act appropriated $100,000:
"to aid in the colonization and settlement of suchfree persons of African descent now residing in saidDistrict, including those to be liberated by this act, asmay desire to emigrate to the Republics of Hayti orLiberia, or such other country beyond the limits ofthe United States."
The principles of the Constitution are powerfulprinciples which the government cannot (easily)circumvent, even when up against immoral legalprinciples of States. Congress, in freeing the Slaves within the District of Columbia, followed the 5
Amendment principle of
incompensating the owners of such "property".In like manner, even President Lincoln's 1863Proclamation (of emancipation) only emancipated suchslaves as were no longer "in" the United States (certainStates had left the Union and therefore its protection;this proclamation only acted upon those States whichleft the Union, where the President no longer had any actual authority).Following is the entire text of the Proclamation, with highlights added, for those not familiar with thelimited extent of its authority.
January 1, 1863By the President of the United States of America:A Proclamation."Whereas on the 22
day of September, A.D.1862, a proclamation was issued by the President ofthe United States, containing, among other things,the following, to wit:"'
on the 1
day of January, A.D.1863,
allpersons held as slaves within any State
ordesignated part of a State the people whereof shallthen be
in rebellion against the United Statesshall be
then, thenceforward, and
the executive government of
the United States
,including the military and naval authority thereof,
the freedom of suchpersons
and will do no act or acts to repress suchpersons, or any of them,
maymake for their
"'That the executive will on the 1
day of Januaryaforesaid, by proclamation, designate the States andparts of States, if any, in which the people thereof,respectively, shall then be in rebellion against theUnited States;and the fact that any State or thepeople thereof shall on that day be in good faithrepresented in the Congress of the United States bymembers chosen thereto at elections wherein amajority of the qualified voters of such States shallhave participated shall, in the absence of strongcountervailing testimony, be deemed conclusiveevidence that such State and the people thereof arenot then in rebellion against the United States.'"Now, therefore,
, Abraham Lincoln, President ofthe United States, by virtue of the power in mevested as Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navyof the United States in time of actual armed rebellionagainst the authority and government of the UnitedStates, as a fit and necessary war measure forsuppressing said rebellion, do, on this 1
day ofJanuary, A.D.1863, and in accordance with mypurpose so to do, publicly proclaimed for the fullperiod of one hundred days from the first day abovementioned, order and
the States andparts of States wherein the people
in rebellion against the United States
the following, to wit:"Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana (except the parishesof St.Bernard, Plaquemines, Jefferson, St.John, St.Charles, St.James, Ascension, Assumption,Terrebonne, Lafourche, St.Mary, St.Martin, andOrleans, including the city of New Orleans),Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, SouthCarolina, North Carolina, and Virginia (except theforty-eight counties designated as West Virginia, and
also the counties of Berkeley, Accomac, Northhampton,
Elizabeth City, York, Princess Anne, and Norfolk,including the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth), and
which excepted parts are
for the present
leftprecisely as if this proclamation were not issued
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