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Nota Padat Fizik F5 Electronic

Nota Padat Fizik F5 Electronic



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Published by slokkro

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Published by: slokkro on Jan 16, 2008
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9.1 CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPEWhat isthermionicemission?Thermionic emission is the process of emission ofelectrons from a heated metal’s surface.How doesthermionicemission occur?
Metal consists of a large number of electronswhich are free to move.
At room temperature, the electrons are free tomove but remain inside the metal.
The electrons cannot escape at the surfacebecause they are held back by the attractiveforces of the atomic nucleus.
If the metal is heated at a high temperature,some of the free electrons may gain sufficientenergy to escape from the metal.
What iscathoderays?
Thermionic emissions can be used to produce acontinuous flow of electrons in a cathode ray tube.
When the cathode is connected to the anode by anextra high tension (EHT) voltage supply, a narrow beamof fast electrons will move to the anode.
The beam of electrons moving from the cathode to theanode is called
cathode rays 
Cathode rays can be used in picture tube of atelevision, a cathode ray oscilloscope and the visualdisplay on a radar screen.
The properties of cathode rays can be summarized:1. Negatively charged particles called electrons.2. Travel in straight lines and cast sharp shadows.3. Travel at very high speed and have kinetic energy.
4. Can cause fluorescence. (A process where thekinetic energy of the electrons is converted intolight energy)5. Deflected by electric and magnetic fields.ToInvestigatethe propertiesof electronstreams in aMaltese crosscathode raytube.Procedure Observation on the fluorescent screenConnect only the 6.3 Vpower supply to thefilamentA dark shadow of the Maltese Cross isformed on the screen.Connect the 6.3 V and EHTto the electrodesA darker shadow of the Maltese Crossis seen on the screen. The shadow issurrounded by green lightBring a pole of a bar magnetnear to the neck of the tube.Two shadow are seen on the screen.The light shadow remains at the centreof screen while the dark one is shifted.Reverse the pole of the barmagnetThe light shadow remains at the centreof screen while the dark one is shiftedto the opposite direction.Discussion1. When the 6.3 V power supply is switched on, the filament isheated. The Maltese cross shadow is formed on the screen dueto the light from the filament.2. When the EHT power supply is switched on, a high voltage isapplied between the cathode and anode causing electrons toaccelerate at high speeds from cathode to anode. Theseelectrons are the cathode rays .3. The cathode rays blocked by the Maltese Cross causing ashadow to form on the screen. The cathode rays travel instraight lines.
4. The green screen formed around the shadow when the EHTpower supply is switched on shows that the kinetic energy ofthe electron is converted into light energy when the electrons hitthe fluorescent scree.5. When a strong magnet is placed at the side of the Maltese Crosstube, the shadow formed is moved and distorted. This showsthat cathode rays are deflected by a magnetic field.Investigate theproperties ofcathode raysin an electricfieldObservation:(a) No voltageconnected to thedeflecting platesTop plate isconnected to EHT (+)and lower plate isconnected to EHT (-)Top plate isconnected to EHT (-)and lower plate isconnected to EHT (+)No deflection The electron beamwill deflect upwardThe electron beamwill deflect downward Discussion1. The cathode ray is negatively charge.2. It will deflect in an electric field.

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