The smart grid can be conceptual-ized as an extensive cyber-physicalsystem that supports andfacilitates significantly enhancedcontrollability and responsivenessof highly distributed resourceswithin electric power systems.
control of the thermal variables is mainly done in closed loop. Solar plants exhibit changing dynamics,nonlinearities, and uncertainties, characteristics that result in detuned performance with classical PIDcontrol. Advanced control strategies that can cope with these issues are needed for better performanceand for decreasing the cost per kilowatt-hour generated.The uncertainty and intermittency of wind and solar generation are major complications that must beaddressed before the full potential of these renewables can be reached. The
an evolution of electricity networks toward greater reliance on communications, computation, and control
promises asolution. The term gained prominence through the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, the European Technology Platform for the Electricity Networks of the Future, and similarinitiatives across numerous other countries. The U.S. Department of Energy has provided a concisedescription of the smart grid :
The application of advanced digital technologies (i.e., microprocessor-based measurement andcontrol, communications, computing, and information systems) are expected to greatly improvethe reliability, security, interoperability, and efficiency of the electrical grid, while reducingenvironmental impacts and promoting economic growth. Achieving enhanced connectivity andinteroperability will require innovation, ingenuity, and different applications, systems, anddevices to operate seamlessly with one another, involving the combined use of open systemarchitecture, as an integration platform, and commonly shared technical standards and protocolsfor communications and information systems. To realize Smart Grid capabilities, deploymentsmust integrate a vast number of smart devices and systems.
The EU’s SmartGrids technology platform summarizes the benefits of smart grids as follows. They:
Better facilitate the connection and operation of generators of all sizes and technologies;
Allow consumers to play a part in optimizing the operation of the system;
Provide consumers with greater information and options for choice of supply;
Significantly reduce the environmental impact of the whole electricity supply system;
Maintain or even improve the existing high levels of system reliability, quality and security of supply;
Maintain and improve the existing services efficiently;
Foster market integration.The broad spectrum of entities and stakeholderscovered by the smart grid is evident from theconceptual model of Fig. 1. The smart grid furtherbroadens the already highly distributed nature of power systems by extending control to the consumerlevel. The smart grid can be conceptualized as anextensive cyber-physical system that supports andsignificantly enhances controllability andresponsiveness of highly distributed resources andassets within electric power systems.