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WP Rohling TCP Reliable PDF

WP Rohling TCP Reliable PDF

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Published by: n43.nitin on Jan 14, 2009
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06/16/2009

 
Top 10 Reasons WhyTCP Is Reliable
1-800-COURSESwww.globalknowledge.com
Expert Reference Series of White Papers
 
Introduction
The protocol used on the Internet for reliable communication is the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).In thispaper,you will learn some of the essentials of TCP by looking at 10 of the top features that make it reliable.In-depth knowledge of protocols can help you in many ways.It enables more efficient troubleshooting.Itallows you to understand how firewalls and routers limit the flow of dangerous information in and out of yournetworks.Our discussion in this white paper is a good introduction,but it does not represent a full,detailedanalysis of TCP.
1.Mature Protocol
Whether or not you agree with the idea,the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is reliable because it is amature protocol.Problems that exist in newer protocols have all been ironed out in the long-standing protocolTCP.TCP is based on Request for Comment (RFC) 793.An RFC is an Internet document that describes process-es and procedures recognized by the Internet Engineering Task Force.RFC 793,released as a standard in 1981,is the standard that describes how TCP operates.TCP features the following 9 capabilities that lead to its truereliability.Protocol captures are being included in the white paper to illustrate the reliability issues discussed.These cap-tures were created with Omnipeek Personal,which is a product from WildPackets,Inc.
2.Orderly Session Startup Process
TCP begins a session by going through a three-step startup process.In step 1,the client sends a specialrequest called a Synchronize to the service with which it is attempting to connect.In step 2,the service sendsan Acknowledgement back to the client informing the client that the attempt to connect has been received.The service also sends a Synchronize request with the Acknowledgement.TheSynchronize sent by the servicetells that client that the service is also ready to connect to send information to the client,if necessary.Finally,the third step is an Acknowledgement message sent to the service from the client to let the service know thatthe client is ready to accept information from the service,if it is sent.Once all three steps have been complet-ed,the session between the client and the service is established.
Step 1.
In the captured packet below,which shows the start of a FTP session between a client and a service,you willsee that the TCP Flags area contains a 1 in the SYN flag indicating the first step of the three-step “handshake.”
Ted Rohling, Global Knowledge Instructor, CISSP
Top 10 Reasons Why TCPIs Reliable
Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved.Page2
 
TCP - Transport Control ProtocolSource Port:
46139
Destination Port:
21 ftp
Sequence Number:
3213898066
 Ack Number:
0
TCP Offset:
10(40 bytes)
Reserved:
%0000TCP Flags:%00000010 ......S.0... .... (No Congestion Window Reduction).0.. .... (No ECN-Echo)..0. .... (No Urgent pointer)...0 .... (No Ack)....0... (No Push).... .0.. (No Reset).... ..1. SYN.... ...0 (No FIN)
 Window:
5840
TCP Checksum:
0x3ABA
Urgent Pointer:
0
Step 2.
In the captured packet below,you will see that the TCP Flags area contains a 1 in the SYN flag and a 1 in theAck flag indicating the second step of the three-step handshake.
TCP - Transport Control ProtocolSource Port:
21 ftp
Destination Port:
46139
Sequence Number:
2062083365
 Ack Number:
3213898067
TCP Offset:
11 (44 bytes)
Reserved:
%0000TCP Flags:%00010010 ...A..S.0... .... (No Congestion Window Reduction).0.. .... (No ECN-Echo)..0. .... (No Urgent pointer)...1 .... Ack....0... (No Push).... .0.. (No Reset).... ..1. SYN.... ...0 (No FIN)
 Window:
65535
TCP Checksum:
0xAD48
Urgent Pointer:
0
Step 3.
In the captured packet below,you will see that the TCP Flags area contains a 1 in the Ack flag indicating thethird step of the three-step handshake.
 
Copyright ©2007 Global Knowledge Training LLC. All rights reserved.Page3

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