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Hakluyt - The Discovery of Muscovy

Hakluyt - The Discovery of Muscovy

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Published by: sanzyv on Aug 16, 2012
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THE DISCOVERY OF MUSCOVY, ETC.HAKLUYT
 
Contents:IntroductionThe New Navigation and Discovery of The Kingdom Of MuscovyThe Coins, Weights, and Measures, used in RussiaThe Voyage of the Ambassedor The Manners, Usages, and Ceremonies of the RussiansThe Voyages of Ohthere and WulfstanKing Alfred's OrosiusThe Geography of Europe.Elegiac verses by William Wordsworth
 
INTRODUCTIONThe first relations between England and Russia were established inQueen Elizabeth's reign, in the manner here set forth, by theexpedition undertaken by Sir Hugh Willoughby and completed byRichard Chanceler or Chancellor, captain of the Edward Bonaventure.Chanceler went on after Willoughby and the crew of his ship, TheAdmiral, with the crew of another vessel in the expedition, had been parted from Chanceler in a storm in the North Sea, and Willoughby'smen were all frozen to death. A few men belonging to the other shipwere believed to have found their way back to England. The story of Chanceler's voyage and the following endeavours to open Muscovy toEnglish trade is here given, as it was told in Hakluyt's collectionof "The Principal Navigations, Voyages, and Discoveries made by theEnglish Nation," the folio published in 1589.The story of our first contact with Russia belongs to the days of Ivan the Terrible. The Russians are a Slavonic people, with Finnishelements to the North and Mongolian to the South, and old contactwith the Swedes, from whom they are supposed to have got their namethrough the Finnish Ruotsi, a corruption, it is said, of the Swedishrothsmenn--rowers. Legends point also to a Scandinavian settlementin the ninth century in Northern Russia. A chief Igor, whose nameis supposed to represent the Scandinavian Ingvar, was trained by awarrior chief Oleg (Scandinavian Helgi?), who attacked Byzantium andwrung tribute from the Greeks. After the death of Oleg, Igor reigned, and after the death of Igor his wife Olga was regent, andwas baptised at Byzantium in the year 955. Her son Sviotoslaff thefirst chief with a Slavonic name, was a conquering chief, who didnot become Christian. He was killed in battle, and his skull wasmade into a drinking-cup. His son Vladimir was a cruel warrior, whotook to Christianity, was baptised in the year 988, and caused theimage of the Slavonic god of Thunder, Perun, to be first cudgelledand then thrown into a river. Vladimir, who first introducedChristianity, divided his dominions, leaving Novgorod to his sonYaroslaff, who established the first code of laws. After the deathof Yaroslaff, in the year 1054, Russia was broken into petty principalities, until the year 1238, when there was a great invasionof the Mongols, who became a great disturbing power, and remained sountil the year 1462, when Ivan III. began the consolidation of aRussian empire. He reigned forty-three years, suppressed theliberties of many independent regions, annexed states, checked theMongols, married a Byzantine princess, and so brought Greek culture

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