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21332480 Textile Wet Processing

21332480 Textile Wet Processing

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Published by Shobhit Jaiswal

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Published by: Shobhit Jaiswal on Aug 19, 2012
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07/21/2013

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TEXTILE WET PROCESSING
THE BASIC OPERATIONSWe can consider the wet processingsector to have three distinct types of processincluded within it. These are representedalong with their aims.1-PREPARATION PROCESS:
Exists to ensure that the textile has the rightphysical and chemical properties to enable it to becoloured or finished.
EXAMPLE:Desizing, Singeing, Scouring, Bleachingetc.2-COLOURATION PROCESSES:Exists to provide the textile with coloureither for aesthetic reasons or for somefunctional purpose determined by the end-useof the product.EXAMPLE:Dyeing, Printing.3-FINISHING PROCESSES:Exists to provide the textile with theproperties that the end-use demands andwhich have not already been provided by anyearlier processes.EXAMPLE:Water Repellency, Flame Repellency, Anti-soiling finish etc.
 
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DEFINITION:
Pretreatment means any treatment, which is done before actual (dyeing andprinting) process. Textile pretreatment is the series of cleaning operations.All impurities which causes adverse effect during dyeing and printing isremoved in pretreatment process.
AIM OF PRE-TREATMENT:
Conversion of fabric from hydrophobic to hydrophilic state.
To remove dust, dirt etc from the fabric.
To achieve the degree of desire whiteness.
CONSTITUENTS OF COTTON:
As discussed earlier pretreatment is the series of cleaning operations. Inpretreatment all the impurities present in cotton are removed. Cotton fiber bynature contains:Cellulose86.8%
Natural Impurities:
Oil and Waxes0.7%Pectins1.0%Carbohydrates0.5%Proteins1.2%Salt1.0%Water8.5%
Colour Pigments:
Others2.0%Except cellulose and water all the impurities are removed in pretreatment.
IMPURITIES REMOVED DURING PRE-TREATMENT:
Short Fibres
Singeing
Applied Impurities
(Size Material)
Desizing
Artificial Impurities
(Oil, Strains, Dust, Dirt)
Scouring
Natural Impurities
(Oil, Wax, Pectin’s, Proteins)
Scouring
Colour Pigments
(Naturally present in cotton)
Bleaching
 
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PRETREATMENT PROCESS OF COTTON FABRIC:
1-Inspection of grey fabric.2-Marking of grey fabric.3-Stitching.4-Shearing / Cropping.5-Singeing.6-Desizing (only for woven fabric)7-Scouring.8-Bleaching.All process discuss in detailed one by one.
1-INSPECTION OF GREY FABRIC:
After receiving the cloth from grey godown, it should be thoroughlychecked and inspected before subjecting it to wet processing. The cloth isexamined for the following:
FABRIC DEFECTS:
Oil, rust, stains, holes, damage selvedge and weaving faults likefloats and read marks etc.
FABRIC SPECIFICATIONS:
Width, length, yarn count, ends and picks per inch and fabriccomposition.
2-MARKING OF GREY FABRIC:
Before carrying out any process, marks are made on the material foridentification. For marking special inks are used capable of resisting allsubsequent treatment which the material may have to go undergo.
3-STITCHING:
Small pieces of fabric are stitched together so as to form acontinuous length, which is workable in the subsequent processes. Thestitching must be very secure so that the fabric may run smoothly onvarious machines.
4-SHEARING / CROPPING:
Removal of fibres, tufts and loose threads from the surface ofmaterial by cutting them with blades on shearing or cropping machines. Thisprocess is carried out in open width. In this process tufts are not removedas closed as by singeing.
5-SINGEING:
Singeing is the process in which protruding fibres present on thesurface of the fabric are removed. In order to achieve the smooth surfacewhich facilitate printing.
6-DESIZING:
Desizing is the process in which size material is removed.
7-SCOURING:
Scouring is the process in which natural as well as artificialimpurities are removed.
 
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