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A Comparative Study between Using OWL Technology and Jess Rule Based For Applying Knowledge to Agent Based System

A Comparative Study between Using OWL Technology and Jess Rule Based For Applying Knowledge to Agent Based System

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Published by ijcsis
The Semantic Web is an extended to the current web where web resources can be manipulated and processed intelligently. User query is semantically analyzed and respond to in intelligent way. A set of technologies are developed to serve this requirement, including Resource Description Framework (RDF), Schema RDF and Web Ontology Language (OWL). Java Agent Development Framework (JADE) is a software framework to make easy the development of multi agent applications in compliance with The Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA) specifications. Several approaches for building knowledge model for JADE agent can be found. The most promising approach is using OWL ontology based knowledge representation which is one of the main standards for the Semantic Web proposed by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), and it is based on description logic. Representing knowledge based on ontology provides many benefits over other representations. The other traditional approach is using conventional rule engine (normally production rule engine). Jess is a familiar rule engine and scripting environment written entirely in Sun’s java language. Jess gives the capability for building Knowledge in the form of declarative rules and facts, and reason about it. Also Jess can be integrated efficiently with a JADE agent. In this paper, A comparative study is held between the above two approaches. An example is implemented to show the tools and steps required in each way and to show the expressivity power of the ontology based over the traditional one.
The Semantic Web is an extended to the current web where web resources can be manipulated and processed intelligently. User query is semantically analyzed and respond to in intelligent way. A set of technologies are developed to serve this requirement, including Resource Description Framework (RDF), Schema RDF and Web Ontology Language (OWL). Java Agent Development Framework (JADE) is a software framework to make easy the development of multi agent applications in compliance with The Foundation for Intelligent Physical Agents (FIPA) specifications. Several approaches for building knowledge model for JADE agent can be found. The most promising approach is using OWL ontology based knowledge representation which is one of the main standards for the Semantic Web proposed by World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), and it is based on description logic. Representing knowledge based on ontology provides many benefits over other representations. The other traditional approach is using conventional rule engine (normally production rule engine). Jess is a familiar rule engine and scripting environment written entirely in Sun’s java language. Jess gives the capability for building Knowledge in the form of declarative rules and facts, and reason about it. Also Jess can be integrated efficiently with a JADE agent. In this paper, A comparative study is held between the above two approaches. An example is implemented to show the tools and steps required in each way and to show the expressivity power of the ontology based over the traditional one.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 7, July 2012
A Comparative Study between Using OWLTechnology and Jess Rule Based For ApplyingKnowledge to Agent Based System
Najla Badie Aldabagh
Computer Sciences Department, Mosul UniversityMosul, Iraqnajladabagh@yahoo.com
Ban Sharief Mustafa
Computer Sciences Department, Mosul UniversityMosul, Iraqahmad_nf2003@yahoo.com 
Abstract
 — 
the Semantic Web is an extended to the current webwhere web resources can be manipulated and processedintelligently. User query is semantically analyzed and respond toin intelligent way. A set of technologies are developed to servethis requirement, including Resource Description Framework(RDF), Schema RDF and Web Ontology Language(OWL).Java Agent Development Framework (JADE) is a softwareframework to make easy the development of multi agentapplications in compliance with The Foundation for IntelligentPhysical Agents (FIPA) specifications. Several approaches forbuilding knowledge model for JADE agent can be found. Themost promising approach is using OWL ontology basedknowledge representation which is one of the main standards forthe Semantic Web proposed by World Wide Web Consortium(W3C), and it is based on description logic. Representingknowledge based on ontology provides many benefits over otherrepresentations.The other traditional approach is using conventional rule engine(normally production rule engine). Jess is a familiar rule engine
and scripting environment written entirely in Sun’s java
language. Jess gives the capability for building Knowledge in theform of declarative rules and facts, and reason about it. Also Jesscan be integrated efficiently with a JADE agent.In this paper, A comparative study is held between the above twoapproaches. An example is implemented to show the tools andsteps required in each way and to show the expressivity power of the ontology based over the traditional one.
 Keywords-component; Java Agent Development Framework(JADE); Web Ontology Language (OWL); Jess; Knowledge Representation; Description Logic (DL).
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
Knowledge Representation (KR) is one of the most
important concepts in artificial intelligent. It’s aimed is to
represent a domain knowledge, and provide a system of logicto enable inference about it. Expressivity is a key parameter inknowledge representation. A more expressive language leadsto easier and compacter representation of the knowledge. Butmore expressive needs more complex algorithms forconstructing inferences.A set of technologies are developed for representing theknowledge, the most familiar is using a rule-based model. Insuch a model facts represent data and rules formulated to applylogic which enable inference about the facts producing a newone or answering specific queries. Others technologies aredeveloped for KR, including the most promising formalmodeling Web Ontology Language (OWL) [17], whichintroduces a new aspects and features into the modeling of KR[21].Now, recently, agent-based technologies are becomepromising means for the development of distributedapplications that require operating in heterogeneous system,because they offer a high level abstraction and cope withdistribution and interoperability [2]. The Foundation forIntelligent Physical Agents (FIPA) introduce a severaldocuments about the specifications that define an agent system.From its title FIPA preferred agents to acts intelligence andseveral efforts has been done for the development of intelligentagent architectures. Intelligent agent is preferred incorporate aknowledge representation in its internal architecture and uses itcontaining theorem to reason about the application domain.A future trend is to replace OWL/SWRL (Semantic WebRule Language) knowledge model over traditional rule basedsystem. Several researchers are working towards this. Forexample, Meech [1] show the difference in features betweenexisting rule engine technologies and OWL/SWRL in applyingbusiness rules to design enterprise information systems.Canadas [10] build a tool for the development of rule basedapplications for the Web based on OWL and SWRLontologies. Others try to get the efficiency of rule engine inontology inference by translating OWL logic into Jess rule.Bontas and Mei [5] present OWL2Jess, which is acomprehensive converter tool enabling Jess reasoning overOWL ontologies. Connor [18] uses SWRL Factory mechanismto integrate the Jess rule engine with SWRL editor.In this paper a behavioral architecture is implemented tobuild an intelligent agent in JADE platform with two differentknowledge models. The first one is based on OWL ontology,the other is by integrating an agent with the rule based engineJess. An example is implemented in the two ways to show the
31http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 7, July 2012
methods and tools used in both cases, and to show strength andweakness in every way.II.
 
A
GENT BASED SYSTEM
 
There are several definitions for the term “Agent”, but all
definition agrees that agent is a software component that hasthe characteristic of being autonomous [2][14]. Agents cancommunicate with each other in asynchrony way, they can becooperative to perform a common task, or it can introduce theirown services.Agent architectures are the fundamental mechanismsunderlying the autonomous components that support effectivebehavior in real-world, dynamic and open environments. Frombeginning, initial efforts focused on the development of intelligent agent architectures [2][14], FIPA develop openspecifications, to support interoperability among agents andagent based applications. FIPA give nothing about how to buildinternal knowledge in an agent, leaving that to the developers.So, we can see different approaches for building intelligentagent in different FIPA complaint agent systems.Several agent architectures are developed to supportintelligent agent [2][14]:
 
Reactive architectures are based on a stimulus
 – 
response mechanism.
 
Belief Desire Intention (BDI): can reason about theiractions.
 
Behavioral architecture: An agent has severalbehaviors which executed in sequence or in paralleldepending on the task to perform. This architecture ismore suitable for used in real applications and ourimplementations will based on it.
 A.
 
 JADE 
The Java Agent Development Framework (JADE) is aplatform that provides a middleware layer to facilitate thedevelopment of distributed multi-agent systems in compliancewith FIPA specifications [12]. JADE have no mechanism forproviding intelligence and reasoning capability.JADE roots to java give it the ability to integrate easilywith other java implementation tools, like Jess (rule enginewritten entirely in JAVA language) and Jena (Java platform forprocessing semantic web data standards RDF and OWL).Those tools can be used to build knowledge model within anagent and reason over it.III.
 
ONTOLOGY
 
AND
 
SEMANTIC
 
WEBOntology is a term borrowed from philosophy. In thecontext of knowledge representation, ontology defined as theshared understanding of some domain, which is oftenconceived as a set of entities, relations, axioms and instances[9]. Ontology based knowledge representation allow forsharing knowledge between different entities, also knowledgecan be reused by reusing or building over well defined Webontologies. Thus such knowledge model will enhanceinteroperability between different agents in different platforms[9].
Figure 1. The latest form of Semantic Web stack diagram (W3C SemanticWeb Activity, 2008)
The Semantic Web is envisioned as an extension of thecurrent web. According to the World Wide Web Consortium(W3C), "The Semantic Web provides a common framework that allows data to be shared and reused across application,enterprise, and community boundaries" [22].The main purpose of Semantic Web is to enable users tofind their request more efficiently by let machine understandand respond to human request based on their meaning. To letthat happen, web resources must be described using a set of W3C standards and technologies to enable its processing.Among these standards are RDF, Schema RDF, and OWL [9].Fig. 1 shows the Semantic Web diagram as seen by W3C.IV.
 
WEB
 
ONTOLOGY
 
LANGUAGEOWL is an ontology language designed for use in theSemantic Web and is the language recommended by the W3Cfor this use. The OWL language provides three expressivesublanguages, OWL-DL is one of the sublanguage whichsupports user who wants more expressivity with complete anddecidable reasoner. Such languages are based on DescriptionLogic [17].
 A.
 
 Description Logic
Description Logics (DL) are a family of formal knowledgerepresentation languages used to represent ontology basedknowledge. The basic syntactic building blocks are concepts(corresponding to classes in object oriented model), roles(represent relationships between two concepts or concept and adata type) and individuals (represent classes instances) [21][4].The knowledge base in DL consists of a:
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 7, July 2012
 
TBox(terminological box): contains a set of axiomswhich represent the schemas of the knowledge.
 
ABox(assertion box): contains all individualsbelonging to TBOX classes.DL have a distinguished feature over other data descriptionformalisms
called “Open World Assumption” which means
that when knowledge of a fact is not present, this will notimply knowledge of the negation of a fact [21][4].
 B.
 
Using OWL-Dl for Building Knowledge Model in jadeagent 
The first step towards building an ontology basedknowledge representation is building the domain specificontology. Using Protégé editor we can easily model thestructure of our knowledge. In OWL, ontology is representedby classes, properties and individuals. Classes representconcepts in domains. OWL has very powerful and expressiveway to describe classes [11]:
 
Classes can be defined to be disjoined, No individualcan be both in two disjoint classes. This will map thedisjoint with axiom in DL logic.
 
Classes can be described by property restriction. Thiswill map the equivalent axiom in DL logic.
 
Classes can be related via a class hierarchy. This willmap the subsumption axiom,. This relation said thatclass B is more general than class A.The power of expressivity not just in describing classes, butalso in defining properties between classes [11]. Propertiesrepresent roles in domains:
 
Two types of properties: object property which relatesan individual to another and data property which relatean individual to data value.
 
Property have range and domain (range and domain arenot constraints in inference process).
 
Property can be defined to be transitive, symmetric orfunctional. This will give more expressivity to reflectthe real world.
 
Properties can be related via a property hierarchy.
 
Property can be defined to be the inverse of anotherproperty (example, greater than is the inverse of smallthan).
C.
 
Supporting Rules
Normally, decision component encoded in rules, also manybusiness processes are best modeled using a declarative rules[6], so sometimes rules need to be added to OWL knowledgebased system.Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) is an expressiveOWL-based rule language allowing rules to be expressed interms of OWL concepts to provide more powerful deductivereasoning capability than OWL alone, coming at the expense of decidability [7]. One should stay within OWL construct untilthe more expressivity power of SWRL is required.Also, Jena includes a general purpose rule-based reasonerwhich support inference over RDF and OWL model andprovide forward and backward chaining [8]. Rules in Jana aredefined by a JAVA Rule object having the IF...THEN...formalism. Jena rules can be added to OWL model and useJena rule reasoner as inference on that model.V.
 
R
ULE BASED SYSTEM
 The idea of rule based system is to represent a domain
expert’s knowledge in form of rules which represent the logic
of the knowledge, always accompanied with facts thatrepresent the data of the knowledge [20]. Another importantpart of such a system is the rule engine that acts on them. Arule consists of two parts: conditions and actions. The actionpart might assert a new fact that fire another rules. Rule engineworked by matching available facts with the condition part of the rules, if one matched then its action part will be executed.The architecture of a rule-based system has the followingcomponents [19]:
 
Rule base: represent the logics as rules that will reasonwith over data
 
Working memory: represent the fact base as facts inknowledge base.
 
Inference engine: match a rule to facts in workingmemory.
 A.
 
 Jess
Jess is the rule engine for the JAVA platform [23]. One of the most important features of jess is using a rête algorithm toimplement its rule engine; this will improve rule-matchingperformance.To use Jess for building a knowledge based system, logic isspecified in the form of rules using one of the two formats: jessrule language or XML [19]. Also facts can be added for therules to operate on. When the rule engine is run, a new factscan be added, or any code belong to java can be executed.Any proposition (as they are used in Propositional Logic)can be represented as a Jess fact. To facilitate reasoning aboutpropositions, predicates are introduced to provide moreexpressive power. A predicate give a specific property of anobject, or express relations between two or more objects.Jess make the assumption that the system has fullknowledge and the absent of facts means that it is false (Closedworld Assumption) [10]. This is different from the open worldassumption made by owl based knowledge representation.
 B.
 
Using JESS for building knowledge model in jade agent 
Jess engine can be integrated with jade to build anintelligent agent that act as a decision component. In Jess-JADE integration [16], the intelligence of the agent is handledby Jess. JADE provide the agent communication platform.Using Agent Communication Language (ACL), JADE pass a
33http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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