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Visualization for levels of animal diseases by integrating OLAP and GIS

Visualization for levels of animal diseases by integrating OLAP and GIS

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Published by ijcsis
Animal diseases have constituted a major problem in many developing and developed countries. There are different limitations for the existing computer systems to meet the required information and analytical capabilities for a better decision in the Egyptian animal production domain. This paper presents an approach for helping policy/decision makers to improve animal production in Egypt. The paper integrates Online Analytical Processing (OLAP), Geographical Information System (GIS), Spatial Analysis functions and Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) capabilities to develop a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS). The main aim of this study is
to generate a composite map for decision makers by using some effective factors affect animal production in Egypt. We visualize and analyze different factors such as "Diseases", "Climate", "Soil Pollution", "Veterinary care" and "Economical factors" which affect the animal production in Egypt. The paper takes in consideration influence of each factor because importance and influence of each factor differs according policy/decision makers point of view.
Animal diseases have constituted a major problem in many developing and developed countries. There are different limitations for the existing computer systems to meet the required information and analytical capabilities for a better decision in the Egyptian animal production domain. This paper presents an approach for helping policy/decision makers to improve animal production in Egypt. The paper integrates Online Analytical Processing (OLAP), Geographical Information System (GIS), Spatial Analysis functions and Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) capabilities to develop a Spatial Decision Support System (SDSS). The main aim of this study is
to generate a composite map for decision makers by using some effective factors affect animal production in Egypt. We visualize and analyze different factors such as "Diseases", "Climate", "Soil Pollution", "Veterinary care" and "Economical factors" which affect the animal production in Egypt. The paper takes in consideration influence of each factor because importance and influence of each factor differs according policy/decision makers point of view.

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Published by: ijcsis on Aug 19, 2012
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Visualization for Levels of Animals Diseases by IntegratingOLAP and GIS
Hesham Ahmed Hassan
Faculty of Computer and Information,Cairo UniversityGiza, Egypt
Hazem El-Bakry
Faculty of Computer and Information,Sciences, Mansoura UniversityMansoura, Egypt
Hamada Gaber Abd Allah
Faculty of Computer and Information,Sciences, Mansoura UniversityMansoura, Egypt
Abstract
Animal diseases have constituted a major problem in manydeveloping and developed countries. There are differentlimitations for the existing computer systems to meet therequired information and analytical capabilities for a betterdecision in the Egyptian animal production domain. This paperpresents an approach for helping policy/decision makers toimprove animal production in Egypt. The paper integrates OnlineAnalytical Processing (OLAP), Geographical InformationSystem (GIS), Spatial Analysis functions and MulticriteriaDecision Analysis (MCDA) capabilities to develop a SpatialDecision Support System (SDSS). The main aim of this study isto generate a composite map for decision makers by using someeffective factors affect animal production in Egypt. We visualizeand analyze different factors such as "
 Diseases
", "
Climate
", "
SoilPollution
", "
Veterinary care
" and "
 Economical factors
" whichaffect the animal production in Egypt. The paper takes inconsideration influence of each factor because importance andinfluence of each factor differs according policy/decision makerspoint of view.
 Keywords:
Geographical Information System (GIS), Multicriteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), Online AnalyticalProcessing (OLAP), Spatial Analysis and Spatial DecisionSupport System (SDSS).
 
1. Introduction
Food crises in less-developed countries have been noted tobe the main obstacle to economic development. Moreover,feeding adequately a population growing at an annual rateof 2.1 %, with limited land and water resources, isconsidered the most important challenge for Egypt. Thepopulation of 74 million is expected to rise to 90 million bythe year 2017. The high population growth rate is a majorconstraint for sustainable development in Egypt. In Egyptthe population dynamics tells interesting situation: dairycattle -5.3%, buffaloes +12.1%, beef cattle +50.0%, sheep+29.9%, goats +32.8%, while people numbers increasedmore than 18%. Nevertheless, there is a shortage of proteinand calcium from animal sources produced in Egypt incomparison to nutritional requirements, and there is anincreasing gap between dairy products produceddomestically and the amount consumed. The gap betweendomestic animal production and consumption has beenestimated at an average of 17 per cent for red meat and 19per cent for milk. This gap has been continuously wideningover recent years and consequently dependence on foodimports has been increasing [1]. In 2000 population of dairy animals in Egypt was about 6.7 million heads of cattle and buffaloes contributing about 30% of the totalvalue of agricultural production. [2].The agricultural domain in Egypt plays a crucial role in thenational economy as it represents 20% of GDP andemploys nearly 30% of the working population. Also, thefeeding adequately a population growing at an annual rateof 1.8%, with limited water resources and land, isconsidered as the most important challenge for policymakers in Egypt. In addition, the national food security hasbeen noted to be the main goal to achieve a realdevelopment and to meet rising of the Egyptian populationthat expected to be more than 100 million by the year 2030.The policy/decision makers’ strategy for animal productionin Egypt, up to year 2037, aims to reduce the milk production gap to be less than 10% [3].Geographical Information System (GIS) links a locationand attribute information and enables a person to visualizepatterns, relationships, and trends. This process gives anentirely new perspective to data analysis that cannot beeasily
 
seen in a table or list format or on a paper map.Exploring data using GIS turns data into information intoknowledge. There are two ways that the layers of locationcan be visualized on a map: Raster layers are organized in agrid of identically sized cells. The cells have a uniformlength and width (square shaped) and are called “pixels.”Vector layers are represented as points, lines, or polygons.A vector layer cannot mix types together. One layer cannothave both points and polygons. The layer would have to besplit into two separate layers; one for points and one forpolygons. Vector data is used when the features havespecific locations and boundaries and the attribute data is
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 7, July 201244http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(
 uniform throughout the individual features. Examples of vector layers include bus stops (point), roads (line), andcounties (polygon).Transactional systems are not designed to support thedecisional processes, new types of systems have beendeveloped to specifically fulfill decisional needs; they arecalled “Analytical Systems” and are known on the marketas “Business Intelligence” (BI) solutions. In the BI world,data warehouses are based on data structures called“multidimensional”. The term “multidimensional” wascoined in the mid-1980s by the community of computerscientists who were involved in the extraction of meaningful information from very large statisticaldatabases (ex. national census). The most widely used BIsolutions are OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing)systems, which provide a unique capability to interactivelyexplore the data warehouse. OLAP technology is based onthe multidimensional database approach, which introducesconcepts that differ from the concepts found in thetransactional database approach. The key multidimensionalconcepts include: dimensions, members, measures, factsand data cubes [4]. A cube is a multidimensional structurethat contains dimensions and measures. Dimensions definethe structure of the cube, and measures provide thenumerical values of interest to the end user.OLAP systems are expected to [5]:
Provide ad hoc access.
Support the complex analysis requirements of decision-makers.
Analyze the data from a number of differentperspectives (business dimensions).
Support complex analyses against large input(atomic-level) datasets.In order to improve the efficiency and response time of theData Warehouse, the preferred structure is the Star Schema.Star Schemas a database structure in which data ismaintained in a single fact table located at the center of theschema with additional dimension data stored indimensional tables, with all hierarchies collapsed.Decision makers have turned to analysts and analyticalmodeling techniques to enhance their decision makingcapabilities. Spatial decision support systems (SDSS) areexplicitly designed to support a decision research processfor complex spatial problems. SDSS provide a framework for integrating database management systems withanalytical models, graphical display and tabular reportingcapabilities, and the export knowledge of decision makers.Such systems can be viewed as spatial analogues of decision support systems (DSS) developed in operationalresearch and management science to address businessproblems [6].What really makes the difference between a SDSS (SpatialDecision Support System) and a traditional DSS (DecisionSupport System) is the particular nature of the geographicdata considered in different spatial problems. In addition,traditional DSSs are devoted almost only to solvestructured and simple problems which make them nonpracticable for complex spatial problems [7]. SDSSrequires the addition of a range of specific techniques andfunctionalities used especially to manage spatial data, toconventional DSSs. These additional capacities enable theSDSS to [6];
 
acquire and manage the spatial data,
 
represent the structure of geographical objects andtheir spatial relations,
 
diffuse the results of the user queries and SDSSanalysis according to different spatial formsincluding maps, graphs, etc., and to
 
Perform an effective spatial analysis by the use of specific techniques.Multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) refers to makingdecisions for alternatives in the presence of multiple andconflicting criteria. A main contribution area of MCDM ismaking preference decision (e.g., evaluation, prioritization,selection) over the available alternatives such as a set of products that are characterized by multiple, usuallyconflicting attributes [8].
2. Problem Formulation
The Central Laboratory for Agriculture Expert Systems(CLAES) in Egypt hosts the data base of BovineInformation System (BOVIS) project that has more than 2million records represented in 52 tables. In this paper weuse El Sharkeya Governorate as case study. [2]Tablesrelated to cow or buffalo sex, major disease categories,various diseases and disorders that affect them, the breeds,the governorate, directorates and the veterinary units theyare affiliated to were classified for mining. As dataproduction and collection is escalating.The purpose of this paper is to do the following:1.
 
Building OLAP (Online AnalyticalProcessing) system instead of TPS(Transaction Processing System).2.
 
Visualizing OLAP output dimensions usingGeographical Information System (GIS).3.
 
Using GIS Spatial Analysis capabilities.4.
 
Building Spatial Multiple Criteria DecisionAnalysis for different factors diseases,Climate, Soil pollution and Economicalfactor see Fig (1).
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 7, July 201245http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Fig 1. General Workflow of Multicriteria Evaluation (MCE)
3. Proposed Method
3.1
 
Building OLAP Database
There is an existing OLAP database for BOVISproject build by CLAES team. OLAP see BOVIS fromdifferent dimensions such as animal count, deaths,disorders/disease, and pregnancy …etc Fig (2).
Fig 2. BOVIS OLAP Cubes and Dimensions
An OLAP system is built especially to navigate withinmultidimensional cubes, i.e., to go from one fact toanother in an interactive manner and to obtain fastresponses. We visualize OLAP multidimensional cubesusing Web based Dundas OLAP services and ASP.Net seeFig (3).
Fig 3. a: Web-Based OLAP Dundas Visualization (Grid)Fig 3. b: Web-Based OLAP Dundas Visualization (Bar Charts)
Web Based Dundas tool allows users to select dynamiccubes and determine measures and dimensions. Users canchoose any cube such as "
card_animal
", "
death
","
disorder 
", "
 pregnancy
",
"slaughters
", "
vaccine
" …etc (seeFig 2). Also users can specify way of display data eitherGrid or Bar Charts.
3.2
 
Visualizing OLAP Output Dimensions
In these step we use GIS engine to visualize OLAPdimensions by preparing data in ArcCatalog GIS usingfeature classes and relationship class for El Sharkeyagovernorate.
 
Feature classes are homogeneous collections of commonfeatures, each having the same spatial representation, suchas points, lines, or polygons, and a common set of attributecolumns see Fig (4).
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 10, No. 7, July 201246http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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